Category Archives: Discussion questions #6

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Discussion questions # 6

Question # 1:

The microphone provides more authentic experience for the listener, mainly thanks to the sounds in the background and all aspects of the individual voice or environment. The digital transmitting of the voice thru the cell phone is cutting off all nuances of the voice, same as the other sounds, voices, etc. that are happening around us. The microphone allows the speaker to present the mood, exact color of the voice, nuances naturally recognized in the voice as the energy of the person who is talking into the mike. The main purpose of the cell phone is just transmission of the voice without any disturbing elements as clear as possible, only as of the communication canal on very fundamental basics, helping just to understand the message as clearly as it is possible.

Question # 2:

The musical qualities of the voice are even about all the imperfections which are adding extra special value to the voice. Concentration on the tone of the voice and listening deeply, trying to read between the lines and learn more about the speaker. Not only words are important to understand everything. It is one of the natural abilities of the human to use music as a language. Digital transmission is concentrating on the message and clear grammar throughout the far distances. But it’s missing the personal quality and the sense of connection.

Question # 3:

We can listen to the voices or music across the world thru digital transmission. But even it is a very practical and significant possibility, there is still a huge difference if you connect with people and can communicate in person. The emotions, extra feelings that we can experience during live communications are unique and noninterchangeable because they easily transmit to our memories and cooperating with our other senses.

Question # 4:
I think that the digital sharing of musical files is all right. It is a different experience than the live concert, which is usually very expensive. I had the chance to listen to the Czech symphonic orchestra playing in the theater live, but when I listened to the very same thing online, it was never the same experience. I want to say by this, that without the internet, I would have not even idea what the classic music is about or if I want to hear it alive, pay for the concert and share the moment. That is why I think that sharing music digitally could be beneficial for the listeners and the artists as well.

Question # 5:
The music itself is a very important part of our lives. We could have always communicated thru music. In the past, when the languages were not developed yet, and today we can introduce or communicate the different cultures or opinions between each other and thanks to the digital world even across the entire world. Music is connecting people on the multi-sensual level, creating memories, expressing different ideas, opinions, and idealism. It is a big question, if sharing musical files should be charged or not, in the end, I think it should be up to the artists individually.

Discussion questions #6

Episodes 3 & 4

Episode 3

  • According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

The main differences between microphone and cellphone is a microphone make sound clear but cell phone makes sound quality worse and more aggressive. The problem with a cellphone is to transfer words without feeling and sound of music. Cellphone engineers only care about transferring the word not the feeling or where we are or the sound of breathing.    

  • What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

Musical qualities of the voice are changed by digital transmission. A digital transmission transfers the music as a word but it does not translate the feeling. The main idea of music is expressing the feeling, not the only word. In addition to losing the voice music tones will change the musical qualities.    

  •  What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

Krukowski’s comments that digital tools make share our idea and interpersonal to farther distance and easier to reach, but it fails to connect and communicate with each other.    

Episode 4

  • Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion on this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay? 

Krukowski discussing the issue of music file sharing, before the technology they gain money from travel tours and music albums. People bought music to listen to because it was not available. With digital audio and technology such as phone applications and youtube, the music become available and free online why do they buy the album and song available on the internet. I know that the songwriters, producers, singers lose money because they donot sell music album as before but I have one question if they lose money why do they make new songs and albums. I know they donot lose money they earn from other ways. Even though the song is free online but when you pay for a subscription on your phone or you watch the song on youtube,  the singer earns money. Based on that music is not free but it is available.       

  • How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

Music has a different language, music describes people’s feelings, their culture, and their community. Every culture has its special song that discuss also their life topics, for example, bob Dylan sang for the Vietnam war and he uses music to protest of sending soldiers to Vietnam. A singer can succeed when he feels connected and closer to people’s problems and use his talent to express their feelings  The melody of the song has changed by technology and digital tools. For example in the old songs, you find people dress nicely setting in the opera to hear the musician sang slowly and clearly without stress the enjoy comparing to now our life is fall of stress and life responsibility and that made us rush as a result our song is rush as our lifestyle. In the old song, it was impossible for any song to had any unsuitable words, in comparison, music now is influence by street language.           

  • Does charging money for music impede the formation of communities around this music or does it help support the circulation of music?

Money and music are connected but the singers are artists they have a message from their songs. their concern should be on their talent not on the money they will earn form the song. They should be concerned to make their music last in the long term not to sing for the short-term and make it forgettable. Many companies’ concern now about focusing on how to develop technology not to improve the music as art.

Discussion questions #6

EPISODE 3 – LOVE

  1. According to Krukowsi the difference between a microphone and a cellphone is that the sound of our voices in the phone has become worse with the switch to digital phones, but is not because the microphones in it. Cellphones don’t transmit the whole range of sound picked up by their mics instead they digitally process that sounds compressing it to remove unnecessary data and transmit just the essential information, our words. Another difference is the proximity in a cellphone you hear someone as far or as near as they are, with a microphone you could perfect techniques of recording controlling your respiration and diction, without disruption of any sounds, or getting closer and far to the mic at certain times so the people listening could feel like the singer is right at their ear, you can transmit feelings through a microphone.
  2. Before we had language hundreds of years ago we had utterances with musical qualities that communicated what we needed to survive, making social organizations. Gary Tomlinson says “There are musical absences at the heart of a language, we are musical beings as much as linguistics ones” he argues that teachers nowadays tend to focus on syntax and grammar and they leave out the musical aspects of language, Krukowski adds that in digital devices nonverbal qualities of our voices also tend to be lost, the sound of our voice across digital lines is limited, just to recognize a voice and understand the words, but that is not enough.
  3. Digital tools had allowed us to share our voice across the world, but they fail us in many aspects. To make our voice understandable across digital lines, the codes remove certain aspects “non essential”, but if you leave out the musical aspects of speech. The significance of these comments is that even though digital tools make our life easier, face to face encounters are essential to transmit our feelings through the music of our voice.

     

    EPISODE 4 – MONEY

  4. Krukowsi said “most musicians I know are paid way too little or much too much maybe it’s because no one is sure what music is really worth”. We have a lot of resources to listen to music free like Youtube, Pandora, etc. but in some platforms like Spotify and Apple music, you have to pay an amount monthly to stream music. Musicians invest time and effort into their music, mostly when they are starting in the business, everybody knows the musical business is competitive and just few people succeed, I think digitals tools are a great advantage to support new musicians and discover hidden talents. It’s also true that many people can’t keep their career as a musician because they have to found a job that makes money, being this said we should really support local artists that we like, paying for their music so they can keep producing it. I support music file sharing because even though it has its disadvantages for artists I think music should be available for everyone and not just for people who have money to pay for it.

  5. Music connects people, it helps you define your personality since a short age and even our social group even though you could listen to every genre of music it’s most probably that you like more one or two and your friends may like many artists that you do. Before people were classified in social groups according to the music they liked, but nowadays is not that common.

  6. I think charging for music helps support the circulation of music, because producing a song with good quality costs money and time, charging for music could keep musicians creating new music. I don’t think this impede the formation of communities around this music, if an artist is liked by the audience they would pay for its music and share it to more people.

 

Discussion 6

Question 1:

According to Krukowski, when we record our voices through the microphone, we have the ability to coalesce ourselves and delete unwanted voices. Also, the movement around the microphone has an effect on the sound dish. For example, when the singer approaches the microphone, the sound becomes deeper, and this makes listeners feel more with words, but when he moves away, he gives more clarity to the sound. As for the mobile phone, it is an invention for the exchange of messages. Krukowski says that sometimes sounds on the phone are worse than nature. But the most important feature in it is communication.

Question 2: 

Professor Tomlinson says that the best thing that happens during communication is the musical aspect and the tone of the sound, as we are creatures love music  by nature. He also clarified that at the present time, his linguist teachers give great importance to the rules only. Krakowski explains that non-verbal quality and words lose their sense of feeling and affection as a result of exchanging electronic messages.

Question 3:

The phone has improved the methods of communication between people because our voices are able to travel around the world, but it does not have the ability to transmit emotions, so the interview is considered a face to face essential.

Question 4:

Musicians always face problems related to violating intellectual property rights as a result of stealing original songs and making them illegal. However, with the advent of new electronic music platforms, people became more aware of the artist’s efforts. Therefore, I find that there must be a financial return for artistic works as a result of the effort and the time it gives.

Question 5:

From the beginnings, music is part of humanity. Always every culture is distinguished by its unique taste with music. And in our time, there are many types of music that express the region of origin due to digital development and cultural openness. Music has become the expression of society and culture, not just its creators.

Ways of Hearing Episodes 3 and 4

Episodes 3 & 4

 

Episode 3

 

  1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

 

Krukowski describes the difference between microphones and digital cell phones. He explains that cell phones have lost the feeling in a person’s voice. He explains that because cell phones compress data they lose something. Old analog phones and microphones are able to pick up the distance between your mouth and the phone, they were able to pick up the non-verbal sounds that we use for communication. A microphone can pick up the bass and treble of your voice. They pick up your breath between words, the sounds in the background and convey more than language but also feelings that can’t be interpreted by digital processing.

 

  1. What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

 

They explain that before we even had language many thousands of years ago, we had utterances. Humans were able to use those sounds to communicate. They also ascertain that there is a huge loss of this musical quality through digital processing. Tomlinson also remarks on the ability humans have to reconstruct those lost feelings even when they are lost to digital compression. He also believes we are musical beings. This can be easily observed in human history in religion. Religion has guided humans as long as we have written history. Religion has evolved to include music as it has become so important to human growth and communication.

 

  1. What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

 

Krukowski’s commentary on voice shows a general trend away from community and interpersonal connections that digital technology has aided. Cell phones and digital technology in society have step by step removed a personal quality of communication. I think we can even take that a bit farther than Krukowski did and add how texting has also promoted this human to human disconnect. The internet, video games, and television keeps children at home rather than outside playing with their friends. While technology has enabled us to talk to people and reach people at great distances all over the world, it has also disconnected us from the real feelings we get from seeing and hearing people.

 

Episode 4

 

  1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay? 

 

I believe that music should be free. I think people should pay for things like a live musical performance, but music is an art. Since the 50s and 60s music has become more and more of a business, whose major purpose has been to make money. I think this continued into the 1990s when musical artists became some of the wealthiest people alive. Music has lost something since then. This continues today despite digital music cutting into the wallets of musicians and record labels. But many of the greatest musical artists of the 40s and 50’s were poor. They didn’t make music to make money. They made music to connect with people. There have been, and still are artists that still make music for the art of it, beyond the capitalist tendencies seen today. One of my favorite groups A Tribe Called Quest once sang, ”Rap is not pop if you call it that then stop.” They were saying that rap music, which started as an art form for black artists to express their struggles in America, has slowly become less of an art and more of a way of becoming rich. Common Sense tells the story of rap using the metaphor of a woman who has changed over the years for the worse in “I used to love her”. It also expresses the progression of music from an artform to a product to be packaged and sold. I think most genres of music around the turn of the century have followed this course.

 

  1. How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

 

Music has been a part of human existence since the beginnings of communication. It has been a part of all cultures around the world and has inspired connections between us and our deities. Digital music has allowed us to share that music all over the world. It has allowed us to connect  people across vast distances. There are some artists who may eschew these connections in the quest to acquire wealth and status, but the true musical artists of the world can obtain their wealth from the connections they make to other humans. They take pride in their art and are happy that it can be shared. There is still plenty of money to be made in the music industry, but more importantly there are still many human connections that can be made, and people whose lives can be inspired by the art created by musicians.

Discussion questions #6

Episode 3

  1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

The main difference between a microphone and a mobile phone is that the main content of the microphone is to spread the host’s voice in a specific area, including the sound of the wind. However, the main purpose of the mobile phone is to talk to two people far away from each other. In order to make the voice clear and accurate, it weakens our emotions. It does not better mobilize people’s emotional changes like the microphone.

2. What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

 

Human language through the mobile phone digital transmission, we can also communicate in a long-distance, but the digital transmission only transmits information and sound and does not express our emotions perfectly. Finally, because of the network, the language does not convey completely or disconnected.

 

3.  What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

Digital transmission technology has helped many people transfer information more conveniently and easily, making the interpersonal relationship in the community better, but the quality of the connection has declined.

Episode 4

  1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion on this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay?

I think music should be Shared, music should be available to anyone who wants to listen to it, and it shouldn’t have any price tag. Music with a price tag gets in the way of people who want to listen to it and slowly lose interest in it.

2.  How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

With the development of society and the dedication of musicians to music, I think music, community, and culture are all related. different areas have their different music and community-style and culture.

Discussion questions#6

Episode 3

1.According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

According to Krukowski, the major differences between a microphone and a cellphone is that we are able to control the proximity effect with microphone, but cellphone can not.As we all know, the sounds we speak out to cellphone will get worse quality when switching to digital form.No matter how close we speak to cellphones, there is no proximity effect.On the contrary,if we speak closely to microphones, we can convey our feelings and emotions well to the listener.It’s quite significant because we want listeners listen our voice through electronic devices as real as possible, we can better express our related feelings by microphones, and cellphone is more like a simple communication device.

 2.What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

Professor Gary Tomlinson states that our ability to communicate with the nonverbal parts of our voices goes so deep, not only in our memories from childhood, it’s coded into the genetic makeup of species itself. Hence he asserts that the musical quality of our voice is also an important nonverbal part of our voice to communicate. However, as the technology develops, the digital transmission has decreased the musical quality of voice because the nonverbal quality of our voice will get lost in digital transmission.Scientists still need to work harder to keep sounds real as it supposed to be when transmit into digital form.

3.What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

Krukowski comments that digital tools make the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection possible to share our words at great distances, but they fail us in so many ways as we try to communicate one to one.This is absolutely a great technique which provides opportunities for people to talk without the limit of distance.However, this technique still has many deficiencies can be improved. Once we can overcome these limits in the digital transmission of voice, these digital tools will make our life and work better.

Episode 4

 1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay? 

As far as I am concerned, whether or not people should pay for music depends on the form of music.For example, if a musician published a song, then in order to appreciate this song, we should pay for it because the musician spent lots of time and money to create the song.However,it should not be set as expensive, otherwise not too many people can listen to it.I think music is a nonverbal “language”, we can use music to communicate with people from all over the world. What’s more, music has the magic to cure our broken heart and relief our anxiety.It’s also the reason why many music artists would like to create music works.

2.How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

Music is a art work created by human beings.The creators always would like to share their feelings, minds and experience through music to their listeners.Therefore music work certainly will contain the creator’s culture and thoughts.What’ more, a creator from particular place can connect better with people from particular community by his music works.It’s because they have similar cultures and backgrounds.And what messages the creator conveys can be easily accepted by those people.Overall, music work can reflect creator’s and culture and it is definitely a great tool to connect with communities and people.

3.Does charging money for music impede the formation of communities around this music or does it help support the circulation of music?

From my perspective, I believe that charging money for music could help support circulation of music.We all know that a person needs to study many knowledge of music to become a musician, it will cost it plenty of money and time.Besides, musician is not a job can easily money.Because the judgement of a song is quite subjective, the creator might love his music work very much, but listeners can not appreciate its value.And as time passed, many musician will give up his music career and work on other industries.Therefore ,charging money for music can make those potential  musicians stay in the area of music and create more wonderful songs.

 

Discussion 6

Episode 3

1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

The main difference is that microphones are analog, and cellphones are digital. The problem with digital is that to send information it needs to be compressed to be transmitted. When audio data is compressed, it has a lot of information lost that computer engineers didn’t think was necessary, which reduces the sound quality.

2. What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

Before human language we had musical utterances, Gary even thinks that memory of musical utterances is part of our genetics. Digital transmission is better at only sending the words and the musical quality can be lost.

3. What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

Online communication helps us connect from long distances. But while we are making use of these communication equipment, we lost quality of that connection when the range of sounds in our voice is limited and sometimes the connection is dropped.

Episode 4
4. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay?

I believe that music should be available for everybody for a fair price. Because it would be a disrespect for the professionals in that area if they don’t get any money from their job.

5. How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

It discusses the value of music and separates it from the value of the technology its associated with. It discusses music sharing and how that impacts the economy of the music industry, and how it changed how people think about the transfer of music information. It also discusses how different cultures use music technology differently, like the Berber people of north Africa and their fascination with autotune.

Discussion Post #6

EPISODE: 3

  1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

Generally, the sound of our voice changed in the cellphones. The reason is cellphone’s mic reduce the sound quality of the voice. Cellphones don’t transfer the whole sounds. It just only focuses on the vocal also the mic of the cellphones is delicate. Cellphones remove the unwanted sound. And we cannot express our feelings properly on cellphones. I want to add that people cannot express their whole feelings or emotions on cellphones but microphones do this clearly, because it doesn’t reduce the sound like cellphones. Microphones sound clearer than cellphones. Furthermore, microphones are best for recording songs or podcast and cellphones are best for communication. Fortunately, nowadays many cellphones have slightly better quality mic similar like microphones.

  1. What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

People can properly express their feelings or emotions by microphones. And people can understand the feelings. On the other hand, on cellphones people cannot understand the emotions or feelings. The reason is a digital transmission relies upon their information perusing to transmit. At the point when individuals talking, they have emotions, however advanced just transmit what they read, not sentiments. As a result, the emotions or feelings vanish during the transformation process in cellphones what is a bad thing and the essential parts of our voice get vanished.

  1. What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

We can travel to anyone with our voice. The voice has the power to express feelings. So, we can meet our favorite persons our voice even though we are far away from each other. The voice connects us very firmly with expressions. Therefore, voice can reach everywhere and distance doesn’t matter at all.

 

EPISODE: 4

  1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available, or should one have to pay?

Music file sharing is a very common thing. People usually share their favorite music with whom they think will like the same music/song. I think it is a very good thing with a bad thing. First, the good thing is people can raise the popularity of an artist. The fan base of a musician can be large enough in the entire world. Another point is people can get the same vibes with the same music. However, sharing is like a threat. Musicians cannot earn proper money for sharing music. They don’t make music for free. Most of them makes music for their living. Unfortunately, people hear their music on online for absolutely free. But people usually don’t buy the song or album afterwards. As a result, the musicians don’t get enough admiration/respect and money even though they work very hard to make a song or an album. I really think that if anyone likes a song of a singer, he/she should buy the song or the album of the musician and it can be appreciated for the musician.

  1. How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

Music has the power to provide a message. The reason is it has lyrics and rhythms. These things can easily spread a message with emotions and meanings. Therefore, if a musician writes about a political song it will influence the community in a good or bad way, depends on the perspective of the song. And if a musician writes a song about cultural viewpoint it will embody the culture in a good or bad way. Moreover, music is attached to the culture and community for the lyrics and rhythms.

  1. Does charging money for music impede the formation of communities around this music or does it help support the circulation of music?

First of all, all musicians need financial affluence for their hard-work on creating music. In that case, I don’t think charging money for music block the formation of communities around music. When people love a song they want to buy the whole album of that song. And still many people buying albums or a song even though we can listen or download songs free on online. Also, if people pay for an album they will definitely remember the album and the artist. Therefore, if people like the album of a musician they will intend to buy his/her next album in future. Also, the musician can get enough money to make more enhanced music in the future.

Discussion Questions #6

Discussion Questions #6

1.According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

According to Krukowski, the main difference between a microphone and a cellphone is that with microphones, we can make full use of proximity effect which is the adjustment of our voice with the distance from the microphone. The reason why people loved Frank Sinatra is because he mastered this microphone technique which made people feel like he was singing right in their ear. However, cellphones are only made to communicate our words. They did not get our feelings related to our words across. According to Roman Mars, “There is no proximity effect on a cellphone. Everyone sounds just as near or just as far as everyone else”.

2. What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson asserts that the musical quality of our voice is the nonverbal part of our voice to communicate. Tomlinson states that, “It is not only in our memories from our early childhood, it is coded into the genetic makeup of our species itself”. Krukowski resonates with him because he believes that his mother constantly singing when she was pregnant with him somehow influenced him in becoming a drummer. He feels that her musical quality of her voice got embedded in him. With technological advancement, we see that the digital transmission has changed the musical quality of the voice because the nonverbal qualities of our voice are lost in the coding of our voice. There is so much left out with the aspects of our voice when it is digitally encoded and transferred

3. What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

Krukowski’s comments on the voice is significant to the ideas of community and interpersonal connection. He believed that our voice is a sound which is not being listened to properly these days. The shift from analog to digital transmission of voice has made a big difference in the community. The introduction to cellphone has certainly made interpersonal connection better, but the quality of that connection has reduced. The message is conveyed, but the emotional aspect of it is left behind. They can hear the words, but the musical quality of voice is certainly denied. The mikes on the cellphones are so sensitive that it picks up all the noise in the surrounding that it is unable to produce the quality of sound that was generated by the old analog ones. We cannot communicate with the part of our language where voice is not needed. If Frank Sinatra was born to this generation, people would not connect to his love songs like they did during the analog days.

4.Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available, or should one have to pay?

Krukowski discusses the issue of music file sharing. He mentions that the file sharing has made it difficult for the musicians to earn a living. They are not paid enough for the work they put in to generate their music. In my opinion, I feel that, file sharing has in fact affected musicians. People get access to their music online for free, so they don’t actually have to buy it. However, their music has gained a wider audience because it was easily accessible online. Krukowski says, “Our music has made it through all those barriers, barriers that made it impossible for records to get there. Barriers that made it hard for musicians to get there”. So, if it was not for the file sharing online, his band would not have an audience singing along with them in Belgrade and that couldn’t get them more emotional than ever.  Regardless of the wider reach of music, I feel that people should pay for the music they want to listen to. Music is a work of art, just like other arts in the market. Musicians have worked hard to produce their music. They also have a livelihood to earn, so we should respect their effort and pay for their music they are selling.

5. How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

This episode talks mostly about how we experience music these days. Krukowski feels that music file-sharing has enabled his music to reach such borders that even musicians themselves can’t reach. He mentions that, “Jace Clayton investigated some fascinating ways, the digital music tools developed in the first world have made their way to third like auto tune in North Africa, where a technology intended to polish notes and Western pop has been put to entirely unforeseen uses”. These musical tools produced in the first world were used in a different way in North Africa and came up with new interesting music at their weddings. This new era of digital music created in the Silicon Valley can affect a Berber wedding in North Africa and vice versa. So, a whole new meaning, an interconnectedness among the music community has formed.

6.Does charging money for music impede the formation of communities around this music or does it help support the circulation of music?

I think charging money for music doesn’t impede the formation of communities around this music because if people like certain song or music, I think it will circulate well regardless of its price. People have the tendency to buy only things that they like. So, if a song is liked by the audience, they will pay the price to listen to it. Those people who liked the music can in turn become a fan of the music and form a community. The collection of these funds can strengthen the musicians’ status to pay for better promotion of their music. These promotions can help them expose their music to public and widen their audience. With this, there is a possibility that more people will buy their music. Now we can see that there is a flow of income, so once musicians feel that they have collected enough funds, it will be easier for them to make their music free to public. Therefore, charging money for music eventually supports the circulation of music.