Author Archives: Fuad Choudhury

Blog Post #5

Poets of the Fall – Late Goodbye (Official Video w/ Lyrics)

► Enable Subtitles/CC for lyrics. From the album “Signs of Life” (2005). Theme song from the computer game “Max Payne 2”. ► Subscribe:…

In this world, we all love to hear music. Some people also love to write lyrics or make music. However, we all have at-least one favorite song, music artist or band. Some people have lots of like me. Yeah, I’m a music-lover and sometimes I love to make rhythms or write lyrics. I want to clarify that we have some kind of memories with the song we love to hear most. It can be a one song or an album/record. I have a story about finding one of my favorite band by an unexpected incident. I want to add that I love to play video games especially on the PC/Desktop. I’m a gamer and it’s my second favorite thing like music. So, when I was in class 6 or 7, I was playing a game called “Max Payne 2”. It’s a game by ‘’Rockstar Games’’ who created epic games such as the Grand Theft Auto, Red Dead Redemption or Bully. I loved the story/theme of the game. Generally, I like this type of games a lot. It took one or two weeks to finish the game. When I finished the game, I heard the soundtrack of the game called ‘’Late Goodbye” by “Poets of the Fall”. After finishing a fantastic game, this song just blew up my mind. Therefore, I discover a great rock band from Helsinki. Poets of the Fall’s vocalist called Marko Saaresto has a great vocal range and can sing a song very uniquely. The song called Late Goodbye has a beautiful lyric such as “And we keep driving into the night, It’s a late goodbye, such a late goodbye”. After that, I keep listening to this beautiful band and still listen this amazing band. Furthermore, when I listen the song called ‘’Late Goodbye”, it brings back me the old beautiful memories. Also, I’m absolutely grateful that I’m fortunate enough to play a good game with discovering a great artist. It feels so astonishing when you find an awesome game with beautiful soundtracks by your favorite musical artist.  In conclusion, there are many stories similar like this, but this my most favorite one.

Discussion Post #7


1. At the beginning of this episode, Krukowski asserts, “the marginal-the rejected-the repressed-is whatever the powerful have decided is of no use at the moment.” What does he mean by this statement? He goes on to ask, “But might it [the marginal-the rejected-the repressed] not be a key to alternate approaches-to art, to society-to power itself?” (“Marginalized” is an adjective that describes a person, group, or concept that is treated as insignificant or peripheral.)

When Damon Krukowski enters the record store, he finds that some specific albums/records are preserved for a long time. Also, these records are expired/out-of-date. I really think that the reason is   people usually like to download music from online music websites and not want to go to music record/albums stores. As a result, the records what only available in the record stores become valueless/unused. However, the records can give a new vision of art. Another thing is we can find much information on a music store. Such as the author pointed out that workers in the music store can provide information about music/records about many years ago that you did not know or thought. Moreover, music albums/records in the record store are in the form of physical/material and it has more attraction or attention than the non-physical music what usually on the internet. Also, we can discover a new category of music that we don’t know by visiting music stores.

2. How are the music listening experiences enabled by Forced Exposure different from those that Paul Lamere is working on with platforms like Spotify?

First of all, Jimmy from Forced Exposure listens songs what he like and what he chosen. Here he can listen and gather/find what kind of music he likes and want to hear in the future. On the other side, Paul Lamere from Spotify who creates algorithm to choose songs from millions of songs based on the category you heard before. It’s like an automatic system/process and people can’t discover new variety of music. Moreover, they will stick with the trend. Also, listening experience of music will never fulfill like the satisfying experience Jimmy had.

3. What distinctions does Krukowski draw between being “surprised” by music and “discovering” music? What are the differences between these experiences and according to Krukowski, why are they important?

Surprising and discovering has different kind of relations. First of all, when we hear a new type of music, it’s like a surprising moment for us and we eager to hear more type of music in the future afterwards. On the other side, discovering is what we are usually searching for. Such as we can get the same type of songs on the Spotify based on the songs we listened. Here technology cannot help us to get new vibes of music. In addition, we cannot get out from the same music taste. Therefore, many information about an innovative kind of music get disappeared.



4. According to Krukowski, what is noise? What is signal? Why are these distinctions important?

First of all, the signal is the sound what we want to hear and the remainder of the sound is the noise. It relies upon our cerebrums/brains/mind. However, in the studio the musicians and producers increase the volume of signal and decrease the volume of noise, blended the music very excellently and make signal and noise sounds more clear so it can give us the full fulfillment of a song.

5. What central idea about noise does this episode convey? Why is it significant?

Producers and musicians usually maximize the volume of the signal and minimize the volume of noise. Noise is the unwanted sounds related to signal and this is very significant. Without noise the song may sound slightly better, but it will never sound like a perfect song all the time. Noise can upgrade the signal and makes the song more powerful and rhythmic. In the meantime, musicians use software to take out the noise. Nevertheless, they can reduce the noise insisted if removing it. Noise is inevitable and also carries the meaning of a song.

6. How does this episode relate to other episodes? 

The episode relates to other episodes of Ways of Hearing. Much the same as the ‘’noise’’ peoples/individuals ignore the unwanted sounds by headphones or cellphones. In addition, noise has been diminished in right now. For instance, until further notice anyone who doesn’t care for a conversation or anything can put on the headphones to ignore the surroundings or other interruptions.

Discussion Post #6


  1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

Generally, the sound of our voice changed in the cellphones. The reason is cellphone’s mic reduce the sound quality of the voice. Cellphones don’t transfer the whole sounds. It just only focuses on the vocal also the mic of the cellphones is delicate. Cellphones remove the unwanted sound. And we cannot express our feelings properly on cellphones. I want to add that people cannot express their whole feelings or emotions on cellphones but microphones do this clearly, because it doesn’t reduce the sound like cellphones. Microphones sound clearer than cellphones. Furthermore, microphones are best for recording songs or podcast and cellphones are best for communication. Fortunately, nowadays many cellphones have slightly better quality mic similar like microphones.

  1. What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

People can properly express their feelings or emotions by microphones. And people can understand the feelings. On the other hand, on cellphones people cannot understand the emotions or feelings. The reason is a digital transmission relies upon their information perusing to transmit. At the point when individuals talking, they have emotions, however advanced just transmit what they read, not sentiments. As a result, the emotions or feelings vanish during the transformation process in cellphones what is a bad thing and the essential parts of our voice get vanished.

  1. What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

We can travel to anyone with our voice. The voice has the power to express feelings. So, we can meet our favorite persons our voice even though we are far away from each other. The voice connects us very firmly with expressions. Therefore, voice can reach everywhere and distance doesn’t matter at all.



  1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available, or should one have to pay?

Music file sharing is a very common thing. People usually share their favorite music with whom they think will like the same music/song. I think it is a very good thing with a bad thing. First, the good thing is people can raise the popularity of an artist. The fan base of a musician can be large enough in the entire world. Another point is people can get the same vibes with the same music. However, sharing is like a threat. Musicians cannot earn proper money for sharing music. They don’t make music for free. Most of them makes music for their living. Unfortunately, people hear their music on online for absolutely free. But people usually don’t buy the song or album afterwards. As a result, the musicians don’t get enough admiration/respect and money even though they work very hard to make a song or an album. I really think that if anyone likes a song of a singer, he/she should buy the song or the album of the musician and it can be appreciated for the musician.

  1. How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

Music has the power to provide a message. The reason is it has lyrics and rhythms. These things can easily spread a message with emotions and meanings. Therefore, if a musician writes about a political song it will influence the community in a good or bad way, depends on the perspective of the song. And if a musician writes a song about cultural viewpoint it will embody the culture in a good or bad way. Moreover, music is attached to the culture and community for the lyrics and rhythms.

  1. Does charging money for music impede the formation of communities around this music or does it help support the circulation of music?

First of all, all musicians need financial affluence for their hard-work on creating music. In that case, I don’t think charging money for music block the formation of communities around music. When people love a song they want to buy the whole album of that song. And still many people buying albums or a song even though we can listen or download songs free on online. Also, if people pay for an album they will definitely remember the album and the artist. Therefore, if people like the album of a musician they will intend to buy his/her next album in future. Also, the musician can get enough money to make more enhanced music in the future.

Blog Post #4

Music is a good way to feel the moment. It has been prepared by using melody, rhythm also harmony. I really think that we all have a specific moment related to a specific song. A song can bring or create moments. However, once I had a good-old MP4 player when I was in high school. I used to have audio and video songs on that. Most of them are audio songs. On that MP4 I only have rock-metal songs. These songs helped to elevate my vibes. The reason is I used to be a soccer player and the rock and metal songs, especially by the great artist such as Three Days Grace, Disturbed, Slipknot, Avenged Sevenfold, Linkin Park, Skillet, Papa Roach, Breaking Benjamin, Tool, System of A Down, Killswitch Engage and many more helped me to build/increase my confidence during playing soccer. That’s why I played soccer at that time effortlessly, and nobody knows this reason. However, I still listen to those artists and surprisingly the specific songs by those artist brings me back to the feelings/moments what I got in the past. It feels absolutely real and wonderful. I know the time will not come, but the moment can easily go through our heats with emotions by music. Everyone loves music and I really believe that music has the greatest power to escape us from the reality or world.

Discussion Post #5


1.What is Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in the “real” world versus are experiences with “digital” time? Why are these differences significant?

Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in the “real” world versus are experiences with “digital” time is that how we living in a time. First of all, Real-world time is the time we usually live. We can feel and see every moment what is true. On the other hand, Digital-time is like a pre-organized time. That’s why we know what will transpire in the future. Digital-time can be controlled or re-create. As a result, the original/true vibes are totally lost for the digital-time what we used to get from the real-world time. And I think this is a main significance between real and digital world time.

2. What does Krukowski mean when he says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate space?

When Krukowski says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate space, he meant the sound has the power/skill to navigate our position/location of where we are. By sound we can simply find where we are. If we focus on the sounds surrounding us, we can easily identify where we are. For example: if I am walking in a street and hear a music what is similar to me, I can easily guess the place. Consciousness of sound helps to find a place.


3. In the interview at the beginning of the episode, Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” What does he mean by this? What does Moss say about the distinction between public and private space, and why is it important?

In the interview at the beginning of the episode, Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” These days many people usually walk around with their screens and don’t want to hear generally for the headphones. People are avoiding ear-contact. They are making some kind of private bubbles to move through public space. As a result, these bubbles changed the public space into private space. Now public places have rules are being controlled by specific companies. However, people don’t understand about the invasion of public spaces. If so, this change would not have been seen. Unfortunately, people lost their consciousness about public space in their concentration for their screen.

4. What is the significance of Emily Thompson’s idea that the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control interior spaces”? How is this desire, according to Krukowski, related to earbuds and headphones?

The significance of Emily Thompson’s idea that the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control interior spaces” because the cause of the growing loudness/volume of sounds. Such as the sound of subways, elevated trains, loud engines of cars or motorbikes. As a result, it’s very hard for people to stay or concentrate with the loud sounds. In this circumstance, people use earbuds and headphones to stay in a private interior space with avoiding interruption from outside.

5. In your own opinion, what are the key ideas from this episode about the relationship between sound and space? What strikes you as interesting about the ways that sound influences our experience of space.

In my opinion, the key ideas from this episode about the relationship between sound and space is we can travel by or through a sound. We can notice our spot/location by listening sounds so we can also go different places by hearing sounds. For example: we can feel the vibe of rain by hearing raining sounds with close eyes even though it’s not raining.

Discussion Post #4

Question- 1:

First of all, we are surrounded by images of publicity/advertising in our daily life. The images encourage our imagination by expectation. John Berger pointed out, “It’s a language with words and images which calls out to us”. In reality, publicity hypnotizes our mind to buy specific products which have values or can bring high-status to us. John Berger pointed out that “Publicity usually persuade us to buy a product to make ourselves rich, even though we will be poorer”. And that’s the purpose of publicity. People who, influenced by publicity buy products and become envy to others. As a result, other people who are unenviable tries to buy products for high-status and here publicity what manufacture the glamour. Glamour works through the eye and the mirror and without social envy, glamour cannot exist. Also, glamour did not exist in the era of the oil painting. Another point is publicity abuses public figures for sell specific products. Moreover, publicity is very significant I think. The reason is most of the profits of selling products are come from publicity. Publicity changed our mind and creates a delusion to buy a specific product to reach in high-level from low-level, even though it’s making us poor/meager. However, publicity uses some methods of art to sell the product such as: atmosphere, settings, signals or objects to sell products.

Question- 2:

Oil paintings usually trying to show what someone is capable of and their status in the society. It describes someone’s own feeling of his own worth. Also, it displays the perspective on himself as he as of now might have been. The people who could pay for oil paintings were at the head of the social class. That’s why they didn’t have yearned for additional. On the other hand, publicity uses oil paintings for advertising products what creates an eagerness to humans’ mind to buy products. Oil painting have been swapped by the model. Publicity uses some strategies of art to sell the product such as: atmosphere, settings, signals or objects to sell products. Eventually, it affects people’s wealth for some temporary excitement/pleasure. As a result, publicity wins and human lose, but not for everybody.

Question- 3:

John Berger explains three kinds of dreams, what are used in publicity. One dream is “The Dream of later Tonight”- Everybody is encircled by what brings joy, however it is you who will bring the best delight of all. This dream displays individuals incredibly appreciating each other’s conversation with all the members being attractive and very sharp looking. Here the most enviable person becomes the role model of the party and also the splendid person. However, thoughts like this is the most common imagination of human and publicity uses this for sell specific products. Usually we can see advertising of scents, diamonds/jewelries, watches, suits/outfits what related with “The Dream of later Tonight”. As a result, people get mesmerized and thinks without that dream related products, he/she cannot be the attractive human in the society.


Briefly answer these questions from Chapter 2 Prewriting in English Composition: Connect, Collaborate, Communicate:

  1. Is the purpose of the essay to educate, announce, entertain, or persuade?

– An essay can be to educate, announce, entertain or persuade. However, I think it’s the most important part to declare what the essay about.

  1. Who might be interested in the topic of the essay?

– The topic of an essay can be interesting only to the students and professor or peers and mentors also. It depends on the theme.

  1. Who would be impacted by the essay or the information within it?

– The information within the essay can be an impact on the students or campus, also in a state or worldwide.

  1. What does the reader know about this topic?

– Usually the author/writer of the essay, write the essay with important details/reasons with examples.

  1. What does the reader need to know in order to understand the essay’s points?

– The reader must find and understand the “thesis statement” of an essay to understand the essay’s point.

  1. What kind of hook is necessary to engage the readers and their interest?

– Some specific information to guess the reader should include in the essay so that the reader can engage in the essay with interest.

  1. What level of language is required? Words that are too subject-specific may make the writing difficult to grasp for readers unfamiliar with the topic.

– A decent level of language is must require in the essay. By not using any difficult words and not making the essay complicated for the reader is an important thing.

  1. What is an appropriate tone for the topic? A humorous tone that is suitable for an autobiographical, narrative essay may not work for a more serious, persuasive essay.

– The tone in the essay can be resolute by the insolence of the writer.


Write a draft of your opening paragraph based on Chapter 3.2 Opening Paragraphs from English Composition: Connect, Collaborate, Communicate.

The opening paragraph or the introduction of an essay is the starting point of an essay. And this paragraph carries a good value of the essay. In this paragraph, the author should include the theme of the essay by giving a statement with emotions or a mental perspective. That’s how the reader can engage with the essay with interest. However, a strong thesis statement is a must. The reader can guess what the essay will be from the thesis statement. If the statement seems good, then the reader will continue his reading. Another thing is pointless things should be avoided in this paragraph in order to hold the attention of the reader. Sometimes a reader can get the same vibes what the author is trying to say and that’s like ‘’hit the jackpot’’ for a good beginning. Clearly, the beginning of the essay has the power to read forward and it can be done by putting some important details with a strong thesis statement and also a statement with emotions. However, the article has significant and accommodating strategies that we can use to convey a good start of our scholastic paper.

Discussion Post #3

Question: 1

Nudity is a form of art and it’s a tradition in European Art. Also, Berger indicated that ‘’nude has to be seen as an object in order to become a nude’’. Moreover, nudes in various poses may express basic or difficult emotions such as the pathos. On the other hand, nakedness is the state of being naked. It infers a person who is unprotected or defenseless. Berger pointed out that nakedness is a celebration of active sexual love between two people in another tradition. He develops the difference that ‘‘to be naked is to be oneself and to be nude is to be seen naked by others and yet not recognized for oneself. However, I think the pictures I saw in the video are familiar with nude painting. Such as the portrait of Nell Gwynne as Venus by Sir Peter Lely. Here her nakedness isn’t her very own statement emotions. It’s an indication of her accommodation to other people.

Question: 2

I think everything begins from the hour of Adam and Eve. The man turned into a delegate of God and the lady gets rebuffed. Also, in the European and Western art men and women had different values. A man is the artist of nude painting and women is the object of art. Unfortunately, it was true. However, I think the equality between men and women changed many things in our society. Now many people understand feminism and respect this. Women’s rights gave women hope to rise and women are rising and still doing it. Presently, people don’t think ladies like an item like the European art. Also, women have the knowledge of who they are and what they are capable of which is a good thing.

Question: 3

The mirror becomes a symbol of vanity/self-importance. A woman may see herself in the mirror to see what she looks or how she should look. And it happens because she is influenced by the opinions, logic or cultural perspective what surrounded by us. However, Berger pointed out that mirror meant vanity to a woman. He also stated that “You painted a naked woman because you enjoyed looking at her, put a mirror in her hand and you called the painting “Vanity,” thus morally condemning the woman whose nakedness you had depicted for you own pleasure.” This remains as one of the most impressive proclamations at any point made about the delineation of ladies in society, art, workmanship and in the public arena. I want to add that here male just showed his own pleasure by doing nude painting and calling it the vanity painting. Furthermore, I believe it has changed and nude painting has become less significant now.


Nowadays, many paintings are misusing in many ways. One of the most common way is it uses for ‘’meme’’. I know it’s awkward and hilarious, but it’s changing our perspective of paintings. It decreases the value of the painting or sometimes it’s doing the opposite. Such as somebody made a meme by using McDonald’s burger on the pitchfork holding by the old man in the famous ‘’American Gothic’’ painting by Grant Wood. Also, there many memes and parodies of that painting around the world. I want to clarify that the painting called “American Gothic” was not famous before.

However, the meaning of the painting is in the eye of the beholder. The artist portrayed the painting by imagining the kind of people should live in that specific house. The painting shows a farmer standing beside his daughter, often mistakenly rumored to be his wife and they were standing in front of a white house with a gothic-style window. However, here the meme changed the perspective of the painting. After seeing the meme people who never see the painting will definitely think that the two persons on the painting are fighting/seeking for food. Or the old man tokes the burger of the girl. But in reality, it’s not. Here invention of software/Photoshop changed the value/meaning of the painting like John Berger pointed out in the video that reproduction changes the actual meaning of the painting.

A meme of the “American Gothic”

Original painting of the “American Gothic”

However, here the meme actually spreads/increasing the popularity of the painting. The reason is when people see the meme, they will try to find the real meanings or the story of the painting. That’s how the fame of the painting can be increased. Similar like the meme there are many parodies about the painting. Also, many movies, animated movies use the painting for entertainment purposes. These things made the painting popular. As a result, the painting is well-known to many people in the world. Also, many people saw the painting as a joke. Therefore, reproduction can be a good way to increase popularity of a painting such as the “American Gothic”.

Discussion Post #2

Question: 1

Berger says that the process of seeing is not “natural,” that it is shaped by habits and conventions. The reason is our daily activities/lifestyle shape our thinking/mind and perspective centers everything. A painting can be seen in different meaning for different age, such as between an adult and a child. A child and an adult have different life experiences. So, an adult can see painting in more detail than a child and it’s not natural. However, Berger described a point of view as reality shaped from the existence of a structure by our eye. Therefore, eye shows the world to us and impact on the tendency of our improvement. Then our tendency what reads the meaning of art.

Question: 2

The creation of the camera changed everything. Now paintings travel to us for the camera. They use for different purposes such as the faces of the paintings use for specific messages, also use to purchase the original ones which are the reproduction unfortunately. I want to add that paintings are everywhere and people don’t get the original vibes what they see in front of an original painting. As a result, original paintings lost their original meaning. Berger pointed out that an original painting can only be seen in one place at a time. Now we can see any painting at any place in different situations. So it just changed our thought what we should see in a museum with stillness and silence. With stillness and silence, we can focus our mind to understand the meaning of the painting. On the hand, paintings in books and magazines has different perspective. Here paintings are used for delivering specific information or message. The reason is now the movement of the camera changed the meaning of a painting completely such as “an allegorical figure becomes a pretty girl” what the video showed.

Question: 3

Berger indicated that the paintings become a form of information. Now its use for spreading specific information. I think that camera divided a painting into many forms. Such as the faces of a painting use for specific messages. Paintings are being replicated by the camera or works of art are being repeated by the camera. The main reason is to sell or use/utilize the paintings based on the interest of what human look for. The copies of paintings use for various information or message what clearly re-forming our experiences. As a result, the first and original significance of an artistic creation is completely lost and gone.