Author Archives: Chang Liu

Blog post#5

“Always with me ” is the ending theme song of the Spirited Away movie. This movie is mainly about a wonderful adventure of chihiro.Therefore, as the ending theme song, the beginning of Always with Me is performed by the instrument flute.It gives us a feeling that we are taking a train going back home joyfully.What’s more, our train is next to the blue sea, we are enjoying the beautiful scenery and sharing our feeling with our family on the train as well. In the later part of the song, after the piano and other  instrument join in, we could not only feel joy ,but also a little bit sad in the song.I can image the scene of two best friends are going to separate at the train stage , the one who’s going back home farewells to his friends on the train.He’s happy, but also sad.He’s happy because he can go back home, he’s sad as well because he had many wonderful memory here and he has to leave now. In a word, this song is pretty good and I love it very much.


Discussion question #7

Episode 5

1.At the beginning of this episode, Krukowski asserts, “the marginal-the rejected-the repressed-is whatever the powerful have decided is of no use at the moment.” What does he mean by this statement? He goes on to ask, “But might it [the marginal-the rejected-the repressed] not be a key to alternate approaches-to art, to society-to power itself?” (“Marginalized” is an adjective that describes a person, group, or concept that is treated as insignificant or peripheral.)

What is he trying to get at with this question? How does music indicate the differences between the powerful and the marginalized?

Krukowski would like to tell us when he visited the record store, he found many music albums and records are being left and forgotten for such a long time.And they are not used even on the day they are expired.After digital music emerges, more and more people prefer music apps than CD. We can easily see how music indicates the differences between powerful and marginalized. With more people use , it’s more powerful, and if nobody uses it , then it’s marginalized. However, Krukowski also mentioned that we might lost lots of valuable experience and information in the record store, therefore we should pay more attention to this forgotten treasure.


2.How are the music listening experiences enabled by Forced Exposure different from those that Paul Lamere is working on with platforms like Spotify?

The music listening experiences enabled by Force Exposure is quite different to those that Paul Lamere is working on with platforms like Spotify. In Force Exposure, we can pick up the songs we think good to a playlist. It also has a huge amount of music and songs in its database. And in platforms like Spotify, they are always built by programmers.Taking Spotify as an example, it has algorithm in the app which can expose us different kinds of music and provide the opportunity for us to explore on unfamiliar fields in music.

3.What distinctions does Krukowski draw between being “surprised” by music and “discovering” music? What are the differences between these experiences and according to Krukowski, why are they important?

Krukowski states the point that surprise is not the same as discovery to a huge digital corporation eager to change every one of us and as much of our time as possible with their product.He gives the examples of Google , Facebook and Spotify. He compares the way how these three company provide our information we would like to know.Certainly, we want true and exact answers when we searching something in Google, on the other hand, we want some surprising songs or information when we use Spotify or Facebook.It’s quite significant because as a customer we want different experience when using different apps.

Episode 6

1.According to Krukowski, what is noise? What is signal? Why are these distinctions important?

According to Krukowski, noise is the signal we are not interested.On the other hand, signal is some sounds we would like to pay attention to.It’s very important because literally they are two different concepts.What can attract our attention is signal, and we are interested in it.Noise is sound that we don’t want to pay attention and it’s also easily to be ignored.


2.What central idea about noise does this episode convey? Why is it significant?

This episode mainly conveys the idea of the difference between sound and noise.For example, when musicians try to produce a song, they will always maximize the volume of the signal sounds and minimize the noise. Also, when a producer would like to create a good TV show ,he needs to control all the recording sounds well and makes them harmony.We can create wonderful music with many instrument,however we should combine all the sounds well, make sure they will not become noise.Sometimes too much is not the best.

3.How does this episode relate to other episodes?

In this episode, Krukowski distinguishes the differences between noise and sound.It’s crucial for us to better understand the meanings of the other episodes.What’s more this episode is like a summary of the series of Way of Hearing.

Blog Post #5


Nowadays, many people feel anxious and uncomfortable because they have numerous of stress from their work, study and family.Some of them might even can not have a good sleep at night.However, listening to the sounds of rain and thunder can really comfort them and relief their anxiety.All of us are very familiar to these sounds and I believe I don’t need to describe them to you in detailed. I suppose the reason why we will feel relax when listening to the sounds of rain and thunder is because they are sounds of nature.Trying to image this scene, you are walking in a park with grasses and flowers on both of your sides.Meanwhile,there’s breeze blowing around you, rains are slightly dropping on the ground and thundering occasionally.Of course, this is my own imagination.However, everyone will have a picture in his mind when listening these natural sounds.Whatever the picture is, it must be picture which make you relax and comfortable.

Discussion questions#6

Episode 3

1.According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

According to Krukowski, the major differences between a microphone and a cellphone is that we are able to control the proximity effect with microphone, but cellphone can not.As we all know, the sounds we speak out to cellphone will get worse quality when switching to digital form.No matter how close we speak to cellphones, there is no proximity effect.On the contrary,if we speak closely to microphones, we can convey our feelings and emotions well to the listener.It’s quite significant because we want listeners listen our voice through electronic devices as real as possible, we can better express our related feelings by microphones, and cellphone is more like a simple communication device.

 2.What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

Professor Gary Tomlinson states that our ability to communicate with the nonverbal parts of our voices goes so deep, not only in our memories from childhood, it’s coded into the genetic makeup of species itself. Hence he asserts that the musical quality of our voice is also an important nonverbal part of our voice to communicate. However, as the technology develops, the digital transmission has decreased the musical quality of voice because the nonverbal quality of our voice will get lost in digital transmission.Scientists still need to work harder to keep sounds real as it supposed to be when transmit into digital form.

3.What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

Krukowski comments that digital tools make the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection possible to share our words at great distances, but they fail us in so many ways as we try to communicate one to one.This is absolutely a great technique which provides opportunities for people to talk without the limit of distance.However, this technique still has many deficiencies can be improved. Once we can overcome these limits in the digital transmission of voice, these digital tools will make our life and work better.

Episode 4

 1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay? 

As far as I am concerned, whether or not people should pay for music depends on the form of music.For example, if a musician published a song, then in order to appreciate this song, we should pay for it because the musician spent lots of time and money to create the song.However,it should not be set as expensive, otherwise not too many people can listen to it.I think music is a nonverbal “language”, we can use music to communicate with people from all over the world. What’s more, music has the magic to cure our broken heart and relief our anxiety.It’s also the reason why many music artists would like to create music works.

2.How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

Music is a art work created by human beings.The creators always would like to share their feelings, minds and experience through music to their listeners.Therefore music work certainly will contain the creator’s culture and thoughts.What’ more, a creator from particular place can connect better with people from particular community by his music works.It’s because they have similar cultures and backgrounds.And what messages the creator conveys can be easily accepted by those people.Overall, music work can reflect creator’s and culture and it is definitely a great tool to connect with communities and people.

3.Does charging money for music impede the formation of communities around this music or does it help support the circulation of music?

From my perspective, I believe that charging money for music could help support circulation of music.We all know that a person needs to study many knowledge of music to become a musician, it will cost it plenty of money and time.Besides, musician is not a job can easily money.Because the judgement of a song is quite subjective, the creator might love his music work very much, but listeners can not appreciate its value.And as time passed, many musician will give up his music career and work on other industries.Therefore ,charging money for music can make those potential  musicians stay in the area of music and create more wonderful songs.


Blog Post#4

The song “Happy Birthday to You” is song for singing and celebrating someone’s birthday.According to the 1998 Guinness World Records, it is the most recognized song in the English language in the world.Besides, I think it is translated to many different languages, which might also a reason why it’s so famous around the world. And maybe what some people listened in the first time is the translation version birthday song.I can’t remember when I first time heard this song, but I can still remember I felt very happy and warm when my parents and relatives sung the song and clapped their hands at the same time.From my perspective, I feel the birthday song is quite fabulous firstly because it can be sung with unaccompanied, secondly it could be easily arranged to different styles of music, which could be blues, jazz and even rock.I believe many people have the same feeling as me that although birthday song probably is not my favorite song, it’s a song we can hardly forget.

Discussion question#5

Episode 1

  1. What is Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in the “real” world versus are experiences with “digital” time? Why are these differences significant?

According to Krukowski, he thinks real time is live time and digital time is machine time which is locked to a clock.And the time code makes everything more regular than live time.Indeed, in real time everything is flexible and variable, on the other hand digital time is like all set in frames.Even though we are able to fix every audio as we want ,which makes it “variable”.However, the audios are still actually being controlled by human beings.The reason why the difference between real time and digital time significant is because the real time precious experience of a moment is being lost when translating to digital time records.

2.What does Krukowski mean when he says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate space?

Krukowsk says that listening has a lot of to do with how we navigate space,we use our stereo hearing to locate sound around us and map where we are.From my perspective, I suppose what he means is that we can map where we are by hearing the sounds around us and the sounds can guide us to right place.However, this also means we need to pay more attention to hear sounds of the place we are in, otherwise we as if have never been to there. For example, nowadays many people will wear headphones to listen to music or watch movies when taking underground, and some of them might miss the stop they should get off because they can’t hear the train’s broadcast.

Episode 2

  1. In the interview at the beginning of the episode, Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” What does he mean by this? What does Moss say about the distinction between public and private space, and why is it important?

Jeremah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way”.What he means is that Astor Place should be a place for people to protest and express their opinions, but the companies now are controlling these areas.Private security guards walk around, they set a bunches of rules to limit people’s activities there such as forbidding skateboarding.It’s quite important because people lost the rights to do what they want in public spaces,and it’s not correct that private companies take those public spaces.

2.What is the significance of Emily Thompson’s idea that the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control interior spaces”? How is this desire, according to Krukowski, related to earbuds and headphones?

Emily Thompson indicates his idea that the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control interior spaces” is pretty significant because of the cause of high volume sounds.As our technology develops, there are more and more technologies with loud noise emerged such as trains ,vehicles and machines with motor or engine.With these noises, people are hard to focus on their work or study,therefore they design headphones ,earbuds and headphones to control the sounds of what they hear, which can also help people to build up their own private spaces.According to Krukowski, the idea of designing headphones and earbuds came from the idea of concerts hall.

3.In your own opinion, what are the key ideas from this episode about the relationship between sound and space? What strikes you as interesting about the ways that sound influences our experience of space

As far as I am concerned, I suppose the main point of episode 2 is that nowadays due to the development of technology, many types of noises have arisen, and people would like to control the sounds they hear and build up their private sounds space.What strikes me as interesting about the ways that sound influences our experience of space is that I didn’t realize why do more and more people wear headphones or earphones when walking in streets or taking public transportation before hearing the Way of Hearing Episode 2.And now I understand that it’s because as technology develops,more and more noises show up either, therefore people need headphones to build up a private sound space which can make them feel safe and comfortable.

Discussion question #4

Question #1:According to Berger, how do “publicity”–what we would call advertising–images influence consumers and why is this significant?

According to what Berger says in “Way of Seeing Episode 4”, publicity proposes to each of us in a consumer society that we change ourselves or our lives by buying something more.He also mentions that the publicity also persuades us to spend more money by the method of telling people that would be such a great transformation by showing us people who have apparently been transformed would be enviable.It’s quite significant because people’s thoughts would be changed as more and more publicity arises.People would be mind washed by the contents which the advertisements convey. Nowadays, we have different forms of advertisements around our life, when we are browsing news at electronic devices ,we’ll see advertisements.When we walking in streets ,we can see advertisement from big screens of buildings.Even at bus stations ,we can still see advertisements.As far as I am concerned, this is not a good phenomenon because it would probably make us spend more money and lost the idea that we should manage our money correctly.

Question #2:As he compares oil painting to publicity (advertising) photography, Berger argues that oil painting “showed what the owner was already enjoying among his possessions and way of life;” “it enhanced his view of himself as he already was.”  Whereas publicity pictures, “appeal to a way of life that we aspire to or think we aspire to.” Why are these differences important? What do they reveal to us about the production of images for publicity?

From my point of view,  oil paintings ,especially old European oil paintings are very similar with each others.The reason why those paintings were created it’s because they wanted to show off their wealthy , social status, accomplishment etc.They aimed to tell everyone that they had better life comparing to most of the normal people.On the contrary , publicity pictures aim to gather more people maybe to sell something or publicize  particular thoughts. The differences between oil paintings and publicity pictures  decide they should be shaped by different  ways.Therefore, the  images for publicity should be  more influential and  more related to common people’s daily life.Meanwhile, publicity images also need to convince their customers that if  they buy the item they can feel happy or have a better life like what is depicted in the images.

Question #3:  Choose one of the “dreams” he offers or think of your own. How does this dream offered by advertising use imagery to manipulate consumers?

Berger states three different dreams here.And I would like to discuss the dream of later night.He describe it as that you are part of good life they smile at , they are part of good life you smile at.Everyone is surrounding by what brings pleasure buy it is you who will bring the greatest pleasure of all.This “dream” will make people feeling joyful if they have adequate imagination.However, dreams will not come true just by thinking.Their potential customers will feel a huge difference between dream and reality.They might think if they were so sorrowful in reality, they prefer last in dream forever.Then they will truly become the customers of wine company,cigarette company or any other company which sells items can make people feel happy mentally.

Blog Post#3

Is the the purpose of the essay to educate, announce, entertain, or persuade?

  • The purpose of the essay is to educate.

Who might be interested in the topic of the essay?

  • Students , professors ,people who interested about the issue of racial discrimination or art of seeing.

Who would be impacted by the essay or the information within it?

  • Students, professors and readers might be impacted by the essay.

What does the reader know about this topic?

  • The reader will know interesting knowledge about how we see and analyze an object or a picture.

What does the reader need to know in order to understand the essay’s points?

  • The reader needs to know the background of Black Live Matters movement and basic knowledge of seeing.

What kind of hook is necessary to engage the readers and their interest?

  • A quotation , a question or a conclusion in opening paragraph can really help me to grasp readers and their interest.

What level of language is required? Words that are too subject-specific may make the writing difficult to grasp for readers unfamiliar with the topic.

  • I will use language that meets the academy standard because it’s an academy essay.

What is an appropriate tone for the topic? A humorous tone that is suitable for an autobiographical, narrative essay may not work for a more serious, persuasive essay.

  • Because this essay mainly discusses about academic knowledge about art of seeing ,therefore it should be written in accurate and rigorous words.


“Silence is a source of great strength.”  This Chinese ancient quote can properly indicate Leshia Evans’s action in the image. This image was photographed at an event that followed the shooting of Alton Sterling by a policeman in Baton Rouge , LA. Leshia Evans, who’s the lady standing in front of two full armed policemen with calm and determination facial expression.This image spreads widely within Black Live Matter movement as well as other social justice movements in social media.Although it’s just a silent photograph , but it truly brings us such great influence and faith to keep fighting for justice.

Discussion question#3

Question 1:

According to Berger, nakedness means someone without clothes and it could be recognized, but  nude is to be seen naked by others and yet not recognized by oneself .Besides , he also mentions that a nude has to be seen as an object.Honestly , I don’t realize they have different meanings before watching this video , but I do now.It’s quite significant to distinguish the meanings of  these two words because they are totally different with each other.We usually use the word “naked” to state somebody’s status , it’s more like an objective description. However , when we use the “word” nude to describe a person , it probably means that person is naked for particular reason .Therefore , I suppose “nude” contains deeper meanings on the base of “nakedness”.

Question 2:

Due to the huge influence of the story of Adam and Eve among western countries, western works firstly depicted and defined men as the agent of god and women were servants of men .Hence, during a very long time since then , men were always portrayed as strong ,majestic and powerful.On the other hand , women were more like objects that could appeal men.In many old European oil paintings would depict and emphasize women’s beauty and nude body only because it could attract more men to look at these paintings.As a result , these depictions really influenced the ways we think of men’s role and women’ role even on today.Nowadays,there are still many people have the thought that husband should take whole responsibility to the family such as making money and making decision, what wife should do is taking good care of children at home and obeying their husband’s order.Fortunately, this unequal relationship between men and women has changed since the one hundred years ago , and more and more  females aware that they can have the same rights and status as males.


Question 3:

Berger describes that a mirror could make women realize how they look like and how they would be judge by men .Gradually , mirror became a symbol of vanity to women and the define of beauty changed, it became a competition among women by how men judged them . Berger also states that the reason why women were depicted as naked is not because they would like to be naked ,it’s because they were charming subjects which could satisfy males’ sexual gaze.However , according to Berger’s interview , they don’t think those old European oil paintings have many connections with women today because they are immensely exaggerated and hard to identify.


Discussion questions #2


In “Ways of Seeing Episode 1” , Berger says that the process of seeing is not natural , that it’s shaped by habits and conventions. I suppose what he means is that seeing may be  just a simple action completed by our eyes , but how we see something is definitely much more complex than the action seeing . Habits and conventions play important roles in deciding how we see something.That’s also the reason why Berger uses the term “ process of seeing” instead of seeing.I believe that circumstance and the mode of thinking will shape the ways we see.Everybody has its own feeling even on the same artwork, it’s based on how we think . As for the circumstance, if we see a painting in a museum , we will stop in front of it and appreciate it , which is an ordinary behavior . But if we see the same painting hung on a street wall, we probably won’t even care about what’s the content of  painting ,but wondering why it’s hung on here . It’s significant that people have the ability to appreciate artworks in different ways because we can keep the diversity of artwork creation.




Before camera was invented ,people could only go to particular locations to see something they wanted to see.After camera emerged,everything changed.We can see any artwork from all over the world in forms of image , video and paper.We no longer need to spend lots of time and money to travel to particular places in order to see the artworks.However ,every coin has two sides.Sometimes artwork like painting can be easily manipulated , the producer can add sounds , words and movement in the painting that will lead the original meaning of the painting totally changed.It’s what Berger says in the video that paintings are usually silence and stillness , they can be manipulated by people if we want.If we have opportunity to appreciate an artwork in museum ,we can appreciate the authentic artwork and probably would feel and understand its original meaning ,which we might can’t achieve if we see it on a screen or in a book.




What  Berger means when he describes reproductions of painting becoming a “form of information” is that  people can manipulate paintings to convey messages through social media or other forms to public.Literally, reproductions of painting are not only art ,but also media resources nowadays. People can get fun from those reproductions of painting , companies can create fascinating advertisements by the reproductions of painting.The reproduction of paintings makes our world more interesting.