While I was going through my Instagram I had the chance to watch a video of a couple dancing at the beach with nobody around, it was possible to only see the couple, the sea and the sand. It starts with a video without any sounds, however the person who edited that adds a song which gave to the video a new meaning, connection and sensitivity for the watchers. Being able to add feelings through sounds is powerful. What before was only two people dancing at the beach now becoming an old couple celebrating the story together. The video has a slow beat and it had less than 1 minute of duration, but once the music became part of the message it was possible to identify the signal and noise and how both together in that context got a full significant meaning. Watching that video it was still possible to visualize the process of transforming something that already existed to turn it into something even better. The music is a calm piano melody and it’s playing over that video it turns the music romantic based on the new context.
- At the beginning of this episode, Krukowski asserts, “the marginal-the rejected-the repressed-is whatever the powerful have decided is of no use at the moment.” What does he mean by this statement? He goes on to ask, “But might it [the marginal-the rejected-the repressed] not be a key to alternate approaches-to art, to society-to power itself?” (“Marginalized” is an adjective that describes a person, group, or concept that is treated as insignificant or peripheral.)
What is he trying to get at with this question? How does music indicate the differences between the powerful and the marginalized?
Everything can be transformed, and after some work on that it can even be seen as something powerful. What we call marginalized at some point can become something significant for yourself or society once it gets the attention from someone else. He inquires if the forgotten/counter culture can build itself up into its own society and culture
2. How are the music listening experiences enabled by Forced Exposure different from those that Paul Lamere is working on with platforms like Spotify?
Digital Companies such as Spotify, Apple music and Pandora have music recommendations done by computers using algoritmos through social recommendation, acoustic similarity and cultural recommendations. The difference is that the forced exposure is listForced Expose can have a human give you a personalized recommendation because they listened to the music themselves.
3. What distinctions does Krukowski draw between being “surprised” by music and “discovering” music? What are the differences between these experiences and according to Krukowski, why are they important?
Surprise is not always a good thing, we want to find things that we are comfortable with that way Krukowski points out that we are not discovering new things. These programs are giving us what we are looking for based on our music recommendations.
4. According to Krukowski, what is noise? What is signal? Why are these distinctions important?
Signal is the message without interference understanding the sounds, in other words signal is where we want to put our attention in. On the other hand, noises are sounds that we are not interested in.
5. What central idea about noise does this episode convey? Why is it significant?
Noises are sounds that we are not interested in, everything is noise until the point we identify a signal we are interested in. We can never completely delete the noise.
6. How does this episode relate to other episodes?
The importance of combining different sounds creating a significant signal. Krukowski uses the noise concept to relate all the episodes. Concluding that every sound is composed of noises and important it is.
1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?
The main difference is that microphones are analog, and cellphones are digital. The problem with digital is that to send information it needs to be compressed to be transmitted. When audio data is compressed, it has a lot of information lost that computer engineers didn’t think was necessary, which reduces the sound quality.
2. What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?
Before human language we had musical utterances, Gary even thinks that memory of musical utterances is part of our genetics. Digital transmission is better at only sending the words and the musical quality can be lost.
3. What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?
Online communication helps us connect from long distances. But while we are making use of these communication equipment, we lost quality of that connection when the range of sounds in our voice is limited and sometimes the connection is dropped.
4. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay?
I believe that music should be available for everybody for a fair price. Because it would be a disrespect for the professionals in that area if they don’t get any money from their job.
5. How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?
It discusses the value of music and separates it from the value of the technology its associated with. It discusses music sharing and how that impacts the economy of the music industry, and how it changed how people think about the transfer of music information. It also discusses how different cultures use music technology differently, like the Berber people of north Africa and their fascination with autotune.
In the Demi Lovato video clip “Skyscraper”, It is possible to hear the sound of the wind blowing away, the landscape gives you the information of sadness. Showing how lonely a life can be one only individual walking through the desert in slow steps with deep brown eyes focused on the screen, why? make the public involved in the specific world presented in that video, a new space being introduced to strangers who eventually will share the same video clip, but will feel it in different ways. In the video it is possible to hear the alternances of her voice that goes through a soft and calm voice to a powerful voice.
While watching that video it was possible to related with the “Ways of Hearing” material in some significant and visible ways. Seeing and hearing Demi Lovato video in some moments the environment has the background mute. An example is when we see the glasses breaking down, but we are not able to hear anything, what makes us realize that we can hear not only throw sounds but also with images, at that point we can the way the video controls the sounds and what reaction it expects from the hearer. However, here her voice will have the all meaning because throw that we are able to get involved in her environment, giving us the chance of experience a new space. We can also relate that with “digital world” once people will hear that in different days, times, etc. That way people will be able to hear the anytime and anywhere but not all of them at the same time.
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1.What is Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in the “real” world versus are experiences with “digital” time? Why are these differences significant?
The real time is experienced subjectively. On the other hand, digital time is not live time, it has latency. Real time gives us the chance of everyone sharing the same experience at the same time and digital time disconnects us from sharing experiences simultaneously. This disconnect is significant because it can have as a consequence solating us even more than we already are.
2. What does Krukowski mean when he says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate space?
The sounds in an environment is what makes us aware of where we are. You can hear the ambulance siren in the streets, children play in the playground, friends listening to loud music celebrating the weekend, all of that information shows us where we are and where we are going.
3. In the interview at the beginning of the episode, Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” What does he mean by this? What does Moss say about the distinction between public and private space, and why is it important?
It is a public place. However, it is possible to see the private security guards walking around. It is supposed to be a place where people protest a place to show you freedron but now there are signs everywhere showing you what to do, because there are rules. That is significant because people now have less fredroom, they are losing their own place.
4. What is the significance of Emily Thompson’s idea that the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control interior spaces”? How is this desire, according to Krukowski, related to earbuds and headphones?
Control sound is about preventing sounds from echoing/propagating from the audience area. Making that the sound from the stage is heard everywhere and the sound of the audience is not heard. In other words, trying to copy outside nature that does not have echoes. Headphones are used as a protection to be away from other people, that is how we control our internal space.
5. In your own opinion, what are the key ideas from this episode about the relationship between sound and space? What strikes you as interesting about the ways that sound influences our experience of space.
I believe many people use the sounds as a form of protection to get around. Sounds can have influence over space giving us the opportunity to experience different kinds of feelings like happiness for the new parents watching their baby, sadness for the old guy sitting on the subway holding alcohol, annoyance with the sounds of traffic.
1. According to John Berger, everything that persuades individuals to consume a product is considered advice. They create dream lives and try to sell the perfection as if what they sell us will fix us. It is significant because what they propose isn’t real.
2. The paintings hide their “imperfections” and the photograph shows you a life of glamour that is available to everyone but a few people ever have. While we know the publicity does not represent us, but instead of that creates dreams for us that are not real.
3. One of the examples that John Berger gives us is about the “perfect skin”. It gives people the idea that once you use their product you will be able to have a perfect skin, like the one that they show all the hands touching. They make you think that with “perfect skin” you will be accepted.
• Is the purpose of the essay to educate, announce, entertain, or persuade?
The essay has the goal to persuade the reader to understand how much a picture can tell us about a period or people.
• Who might be interested in the topic of the essay?
Activists, photography enthusiasts, historians.
• Who would be impacted by the essay or the information within it?
People studying black history.
• What does the reader know about this topic?
The photography enthusiasts would know about how to critique the photo, and the activists would know about the protests.
• What does the reader need to know in order to understand the essay’s points?
They would need to be aware of the news. It would be a plus if they knew the basic concepts of art.
• What kind of hook is necessary to engage the readers and their interest?
Something to invoke emotions.
• What level of language is required? Words that are too subject-specific may make the writing difficult to grasp for readers unfamiliar with the topic.
A basic understanding of language.
• What is an appropriate tone for the topic? A humorous tone that is suitable for an autobiographical, narrative essay may not work for a more serious, persuasive essay.
Persuasive, serious tone.
2. The photograph has three subjects, Leshia Evans as the primary one and then 2 cops. The three subjects are located in the center of the photograph Evans in the right side and the cops in the left side. It is possible to see the predominant green in the right background. On the hand, in the left side the color black is predominant. It is also visible that Evans is the only one who’s skin is black, and all of the cops are apparently are white. The image has a clear division down the middle where we can see the protest vs oppression, which she is about to be pulled out of her side. The movement reviews the peacefulness in one side and the brute force from the other one. It is picture not painting, and the woman is visible in active situation, she is not in a weak position. This will be proved through analyzing replicas, color, sounds, positioning and movement of the image.
1. Being naked means being yourself, being who you are. But when we talk about nude it means being watched by someone else. I believe the most significant difference between them is the loss of the essence. When women are depicted nude in art they get material values, being seen as an object. We can use as an example the Brazilian Carnaval, women are exposed seminaked in the most commercials and advertisements as a trophy.
2. According to Berger, the paintings do not represent the women’s own feelings but their submission for the men, they are created for the male satisfaction. The pictures represent women being constantly judged by men, where the most beautiful women will be “chosen” by them. The woman is seen as a sexual object. I believe that it is still possible to see many men who see women as an object, as cleaner or as someone that needs to be there to serve them, as represented in the depictions.
3. In Berger’s description the mirror is represented as a vanity symbol of women. He also highlights that the pictures are painted for the men’s pleasure. While a woman looks at herself through the mirror, she’s thinking of the way men will see her. During his interview some of the women described the paintings as unreal, saying that the older European art paintings do not show dynamism and women are represented in a humiliation context, portraying women as “inanimate pleasure symbol”.
The meme Disaster Girl has two primary elements, an innocent girl in the foreground and a burning building in the background. But what makes this meme special is the way the girl is looking at the camera. It is as if she set the fire and is proud of it. This meme has been used in a lot of contexts but one of my favorite is the jealous girlfriend. “My boyfriend used to talk a lot with a girl, now he does not talk anymore.” Depending on what the text is the meaning of the meme can change drastically.
1.It used to be only one version and it is a context. That context was divided by a location like a church. Now it is possible to find many replications. The context can be shaped by anything surrounding any of the replications. Art books can focus on specific parts of the painting and do not show the whole thing. Before any replication could be made there was only one way to see a painting now there is a different meaning for every painting for everyone who sees it.
2.Unless you see a painting in person you will not be able to feel the true awe. A screen has flickering lights. It means that you will not be able to see the stillness that you would in person. A camera can move in or zoom around and they can even play music if you are watching on the TV. Even in a book you need to flip the page.
3.Replications can be seen in magazines, advertisements, newspapers or/and on the TV. We have to make sense of all of them in this context. In a way paintings have always been information, but in our modern world we have to understand everything in its specific context.