Author Archives: Sumitra Budhathoki Dhungel

Discussion Question 7

Episode 5

  1. At the beginning of this episode, Krukowski asserts, “the marginal-the rejected-the repressed-is whatever the powerful have decided is of no use at the moment.” What does he mean by this statement? He goes on to ask, “But might it [the marginal-the rejected-the repressed] not be a key to alternate approaches-to art, to society-to power itself?” (“Marginalized” is an adjective that describes a person, group, or concept that is treated as insignificant or peripheral.)

What is he trying to get at with this question? How does music indicate the differences between the powerful and the marginalized?

 Krukowski asserts, “the marginal-the rejected-the repressed-is whatever the powerful have decided is of no use at the moment.” music which is outdated society decided it to no more popular or exist in the market. So, with the demand of time  music has changed  and the interest of people . Thus, music with time can become unfamiliar, outdated and no longer relevant in a society. Therefore, the audience has a power to control the music. Krukowski refers to power as the audience, corporations and musicians for making the decision on what should be played and will be the next.

How are the music listening experiences enabled by Forced Exposure different from those that Paul Lamere is working on with platforms like Spotify?

Force exposure is listening to everything . There is no way to skip  or the way to choose the songs you want . It is a long process. However, Paul Lamere works on platforms, like spotify is a design recommendation program for the Echo Nest , a division of spotify. So instead of having to scroll through millions of songs to figure out what you want to play you just hit a play button and it plays the right song for you. Digital music companies like Spotify, Apple Music,and Pandora want to work with the entire universe of available music. Forced Exposure’s 50,000 titles are a drop in the ocean for them. Next ,Paul Lamere recommends algorithms, which  has become a pretty amazing place. Spotify’s “Discover” feature, and its predictions of  musical tastes are so accurate can be unnerving.


  1. What distinctions does Krukowski draw between being “surprised” by music and “discovering” music? What are the differences between these experiences and according to Krukowski, why are they important?

Krukowski explains surprise is something that you are familiar with or known before. If you know in advance that it is not surprise and surprise is not really a helpful thing. He explains  with an example of google and Facebook that why we are not surprised. Google wants to “surprise” us when we use it to search for something? Similarly, Facebook wants  to “surprise” us when we look for our friends? Not at all they want us to find what we are already comfortable with. Surprise is not the same as “discovery”.Discover is the opposite of “surprise” ; it is more about what is a meaningful signal for each of us.

Discovering is clear for what we are looking or searching for. Discovering music isn’t as  usual as  we used to hear before. In the episode Krukowski also has his own experience of discovering music  “Ghost” by the Forced Exposure. 

Episode 6

  1. According to Krukowski, what is noise? What is signal? Why are these distinctions important?

According to krukowski noise means probably the signal that you are not interested and so a lot of what we do as ear surgeons is to try to amplify the signal, and decrease the noise. He further added, sound in terms of signal and noise in the recording studio. Although, signal and noise are always joined together in the analog world. These are distinctions  important because digital allows the boosting of signal without the boosting of noise. Digital signal no noise on it from the medium -no surface noise like an LP, no tape hiss like a cassette, no static like on the radio so, if volume is turned up it gives more volume. In the digital audio world, everything can be louder than everything else. There is no noise to restrain the signal.


2.What central idea about noise does this episode convey? Why is it significant?

The central idea of the episode’s message about noise is that if we are not interested. For example, when I am doing my assignment and next to my side my sister asks me something that I want to hear: that’s a signal, and everything else in the room is noise. But then something new at the television interests me as I am eavesdropping, that voice becomes a signal, and whatever is being said by my sister is  now the noise. It is significant because signals reduce noise. We are very skilled at shifting our attention from noise  to signal, focusing and refocusing on different sounds in the environment, and shutting out others. Therefore, musicians  use digital signals to reduce the noise.  We cannot control the noise because it is unavoidable.

  1.   How does this episode relate to other episodes? 

This episode talks about the noise and signal which reflect the previous episode because each episode has illustrated the concept of noise. In the analog recording the elasticity of time is one  good example of noise.In analog recording what is done is done there was no replay. Similarly, in the episode 2 “space” Krukowski represents the logical use  of cellphones and  headphones to eliminate the noise  and make space in the crowd. It is a demand of today’s society to use earphones or headphones to eliminate the noise and to get the signals. Consequently, the musicians and digital corporations use the digital audio to reduce noise. Because they make sounds and signals  perceivable to the audience. In conclusion, noise is probably the signal that we don’t want or either interested.  


Blog Post 5

When I was in my back home country I do not need any kind of sound to start my day because my hometown is surrounded with natural beauty from where I can feel natural sounds such as, birds  chirping, cascade , temple ringing bells, and especially the sound of koel cuckoo  and my mom chant which has becomes the part of my life and I was fascinated with those natural  sounds. The sounds make me calm and satisfied. I fall in love with nature.I feel like I am in paradise. Actually, it  relaxes the body and mind for example, when we go to the massage center to massage our body. At that time the workers play the music of natural sounds like birds, flute, river, rain and so on because such music heals our body. Sound therapy experts believe that listening to calming noises or music helps to relax the body and it is an important tool in the healing process. 

But when I moved to the United States I realized that the city life is busy and rushed.  I want to relate to Damon Krukowski “ the way of hearing” that digital tools help us to connect with our feelings. Wearing earphones distracts people for certain time to relax and provide space yet, many people in the New York City rely on their cell phones for various reasons one of the reasons   is  music. Therefore, I do the same things to be comfortable, to make space in the crowd, and attach to the sounds. I use cell phones and earphones .

Discussion question 6

Episode 3

  1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

According to Krukowski, the main difference between a microphone and a cellphone is that the microphone makes full use of what audio engineers call the “ proximity effect”. Microphone speak closely to them exaggerate the bassier, cheshire tones in our voices. And if you back away from them, they highlight the brassiere, clearer tones . Microphone gives the feeling of close tone to the people. Similarly, cell phones make it possible to share our words across great distance. But they fail us in many ways, as we try to communicate one-to-one. Not only we are often left hanging, speaking into the air at one end and listening to nothing at the other. But even when all is working as it’s supposed to, the sound of our voice across the digital line is limited. It’s stripped to that minimum we need to recognize a voice , and decode its words. Furthermore, cellphone miniature mics in our cell phones are more sensitive and there is no proximity effect. Also, we lose on the cell phone is the part of our voices that communicates without language, the part we use for flirting.

2.What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

Gary Tomlinson believes that our ability to communicate with the non-verval parts of our voice goes so deep. It’s coded into the genetic makeup of our species itself. He states that technology encodes our language and sounds it over the internet and makes it perceivable at the other end of this great space of distance. The non-verbal qualities of our voices tend to be lost in that coding. In addition, musical qualities communicated what we need to survive as a species: toolmaking, social organization and love. 

  1. What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

Krukowski states that digital communication such as cell phones are convenient and reliable to communicate  with each other and can travel to anyone with our voice. but the feeling of emotion is missing in digital communication. Cell phones are engineered to communicate our words. Literally, cell phones create the feeling of one another for a moment no matter where the person lives but it connects the person and keeps in touch with the emotion. The voice has the power to express feelings to each other. The voice connects us very firmly with expressions. Therefore, the cell phone is the part of our voice that communicates without language, the part we are for flirting.

Episode 4

  1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay?

Music file sharing is the sharing of music which should be available to anybody that wants to hear it. Sharing was seen as an existential threat. In my opinion music file sharing is bad because it is  a kind of stealing someone’s talent without concern or paying them enough. Music file sharing is bad for those small, struggling companies, and it’s ultimately bad for the people who love musical theater. On the other hand, music file sharing could affect some musician’s life from earning enough and it will be more convenient and less valuable.. In addition, the  freedom of recorded music has compromised musicians’ ability to  make a living from it. I believe it affects musicians’ work because people can get free music online without paying. Therefore,without more effort musician’s become unknown, popular and circulate more music which will gain a wider audience because it was easily reachable to the people through online.  Krukowski states, when he was on stage for music, the audience knew in advance the song that he was playing which made him cry  on stage. He mentioned, Our music had made it through all those barriers- barriers that made it impossible for record to get there. To sum up, music is an art and some passion. Someone’s ways of  life, so it should be highly appreciated and valued . It is a way of earning for livelihood so we should pay for their effort, hard work and dedication to us.   

  1. How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

Music is an art of delivering information through the words , it is the feeling of a singer to represent community and culture.  Music is a huge part of our lives. Musicians try to deliver  messages to the community  through their music. Music  influences  us and our cultural identity. So, every community preserving their identity of music will represent them. For example, in   Nepal the newar community plays the music which has its roots in classical Hindu and Buddhist music. It involved incorporation of folk music of the Kathmandu valley and its peripheries. Which represent their culture. In fact music carries the singer’s words,feelings, emotions and attachment  to the community and its people.  Music helps to define who we are , creating our communal self-identity. For instance, with the multicultural perspective we see that there are many cultural beliefs and that there are many performance practices and standards. This diversity enriches our lives, broadens our understanding of the world we live in, and deepens our appreciation for the music of our own cultures.   

  1. Does charging money for music impede the formation of communities around this music or does it help support the circulation of music?

Charging money for music supports the circulation of music because composers compose music for living. It is their job to somehow put food on the table at the end of the day. Charging money implied the importance of music towards the audience however good things always have a price on it. Music production is not easy, it takes someone effort, money and time, so charging money can maintain the circulation to keep on balance between music production and audience. In addition, copying and selling music is considered illegal without the permission of the singer because without their concern someone steals their work for their own benefit and they are not paid well. Therefore, charging money for music circulates healthy relationships to both musicians and audience because everyone needs money to survive their lives. Music is an art to form an art  musician’s work day and night. For their  hard work and dedication we should offer them their fruits of labor.  



blog post 5

See the source image

cells phones 

The use of technology has changed our perception of life in many different ways and it has become a part of our lives. In fact, nowadays people cannot imagine their lives without technology such as smartphones, computers, and other means of technological devices. Cell phones have become very popular and are used by a lot of people everywhere. It is the most convenient and flexible device to use everywhere. It has great advantages and it makes our lives easier and comfortable. Cell phones have made my life easier in a sense to communicate with my parents everyday because they live in my back home county. So, I don’t feel any missing or they even don’t feel they miss me.  But too much use of technology takes our time and makes us lose the sense of time because actually it is a kind of addiction. The  use of cell phones has some pitfalls to it because sometimes we get so fascinated  into cell phones that we become completely unaware of what is happening around us and forget to take care of important things in our lives. When we give most of our time to the cell phones we lose our sociable life and can create social distance among our family, relatives and  friends so the use of cell phones should be in limitation to create healthy relationships. That’s how you can feel the company of each person and how they matter for you. In this way, you have got better to be sociable in real life. Couples of time the use of  cell phones have distracted me from my work and time. For instance, when I go to bed at night,with the intention of  reading and  sleeping , I always grab my phone and start to check  email,  Facebook and google search to study  and so on and when I realize time it is always late to sleep at midnight like 2 or 3 o’clock. As a consequence , I cannot wake up early in the morning which hampers my college life and other work. Further it made my body lazy and tired. There is a saying “ if you win the morning, you win the day”. It is important for us to know the value of time  as people to learn how to manage our time and not let technology take away our wellness and creativity; the use of cell phones distract us in many ways but we should use it wisely and know when to put a limit to it.  As a being smart  don’t let your  smartphone control you. Our time is valuable, so it should be used in productivity for a better future.


discussion question 5 Way of Hearing


  1. What is Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in the “real” world versus are experiences with “digital” time? Why are these differences significant?

         Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in “ real world” versus are experiences with “ digital” time when Galaxies 500 recorded, we played our songs in what audio engineers now refer to as “ real time”. Real time implies live time. Time as we experience it in the analog world.It is experienced and not counted like a clock. Those experiences are variable, always changing and flexible. It shows simply how long something seems to take when it is not pleasant, as opposed to how quickly it goes by when you are having fun. Digital time on the other hand  is not lived time. It’s machine time. It’s locked to a clock and that clock time code makes everything more regular than lived time. Digital time is only one among many, equally possible experiences. Digital time is something called latency, a delay between the actual moment and when we hear it. However, this is caused by the time it takes to translate digital info to sound as well as the travel time through the  various pieces of equipment. Digital time is very difficult to synchronize and it’s a challenge, in digital recording, to line up the different layers that make upa song.

2 .  What does Krukowski mean when he says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate space?

         Krukowski means when he says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate spaces means what we hear and plays a big role in what we are aware of regarding our surroundings and how we travel through them. He further mentions, when we use our stereo hearing to locate sounds around us and to map where we are in relation to the source of these sounds. If you limit your hearing with ear plugs or ear buds, you will be less aware of the space around you as well as the people.

Episode 2

  1. In the interview at the beginning of the episode, Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” What does he mean by this? What does Moss say about the distinction between public and private space, and why is it important?

           Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” He means that developers in Astor place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way because Astor place is for public and everybody’s  were welcome here. Private security guards walk around and people are safe and protest.public dissent in this place. It has a sigh no skateboarding no this no that because it’s now pedestrian plaza. There are rules which dictate how people use the space.  


2. What is the significance of Emily Thompson’s idea that the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control interior spaces”? How is this desire, according to Krukowski, related to earbuds and headphones?

        Emily Thompson’s idea that the development of concert halls arose from desire to “ control interior spaces” because there was a time that was perceived to be uniquely and unprecedentedly loud, and a lot of that had to do with technological changes in the modern city. The rise of internal combustion engines with vehicles everywhere, trains and subways  are hard to deal with in such an environment. Therefore,noise abatement helped to understand the drive to control sound in interior space- to create kind of refuges from those environments. And so auditoriums began to be designed to be more absorptive, to reduce reverberation. According to Krukowski,  earbuds and headphones  help people to create their own space in the noise environment. In addition,those  sound cancellation helps to set apart people from the noisy world and fascinated with it’s sound effect.

3. In your own opinion, what are the key ideas from this episode about the relationship between sound and space? What strikes you as interesting about the ways that sound influences our experience of space.

        The key ideas from this  episode, a relationship between sounds and space in my points, is  hearing helps us  to navigate space . We use our stereo hearing to locate sounds around us and to map where we are in relation to the source of those sounds. In fact, sounds make us aware of our surroundings and it lets us travel time.  For example,when I was in my back  home country a couple of times I had followed the sound of  Mike to teach in that place because it guide me that space.

discussion 4



  1. According to Berger, how do “publicity”–what we would call advertising–images influence consumers and why is this significant?

According to the Berger “publicity” proposes to each of us in a consumer society that we change ourselves or our lives by buying something more. Advertising  is the act of persuading and informing others of a more desirable way of life. It is the people  and the object within the images that we see that are purposefully placed with the desired consequence that we will  make a purchase to improve our lifestyle and become more desirable.

2. As he compares oil painting to publicity (advertising) photography, Berger argues that oil painting “showed what the owner was already enjoying among his possessions and way of life;” “it enhanced his view of himself as he already was.”  Whereas publicity pictures, “appeal to a way of life that we aspire to or think we aspire to.” Why are these differences important? What do they reveal to us about the production of images for publicity?

 Berger illustrates that publicity and oil painting use many of the same visual language and same ideals. He argues oil painting “showed what the owner was already enjoying among his possessions and way of life;” “it  enhanced his view of himself as he already was.” Whereas publicity pictures, “ appeal to a  way of life that we aspire to or think we aspire to.In the video Berger presented the differences of oil painting to publicity side by side  the oil painting showed what its owner was already enjoying among his possession and his way of life.  Oil painting is the possessions and way of  Life of the owner, his own value and it enhanced view of himself  as he already was it began  With facts which it didn’t take into account . oil painting shows the owner corresponds to  the condition of his own life. Moreover,oil painting, before anything else, was a celebration of private property. 

 On the other hand, Publicity images rely on viewers having a certain reaction. It is to make the spectator marginally dissatisfied with his present way of life. It convinces the buyer to buy a product to have a better life and gets some people before and after getting this product of whatever they are trying to sell and show how happy they become after buying this product. Publicity speaks in the future tense and yet the achievement of this future is endlessly deferred.

3. Choose one of the “dreams” he offers or think of your own. How does this dream offered by advertising use imagery to manipulate consumers?

Berger highlights that the publicity images always depict one of three dreams. “ The dream of late tonight you are part of good life they smile at they are part of the good life you smile it everyone is surrounded by what brings pleasure but it is you will bring the greatest pleasure and next morning you will still fee; the same about it. Such publicity works on the imagination but it does something else too because publicity pretends to interpret the world around us and to explain everything in its own terms. In this type of dream people  manifest their class level, prestige  and action. Moreover, it feels good around other people and their company. It feels pleasure and signs of love. Consequently, such dreams “ envied”  people to be the part of the glamour world and glamour lifestyle in which we live, the things we own and the things we wear all in which show this type of “glamour” or “envied” lifestyle. In today’s society what we see we believe. So, this kind of  materialistic life influences others’ lives to dream. Imagery such as dresses,style, alcohol, cigarettes etc help to sell  the product and if one does not show up or publicity the product then other will not achieve this type of dream. Without envy, there is no glamour.


Blog post 3

  1. Is the purpose of the essay to educate, announce, entertain, or persuade?

The purpose of the essay is to educate because it tells a lot of facts and information which may be new for us .In addition, it persuades  us to think in depth which helps to develop our thinking level and ideas. 

2. Who might be interested in the topic of the essay?Readers and students  are more interested in the topic of the essay because it tells a whole body parts of the essay. Professors are also equally interested to judge the topic of the essay.

3. Who would be impacted by the essay or the information within it?

 The students and the readers who are interested in the topic.

4. What does the reader know about this topic?

Topic sentences announce what the paragraph will be discussed in the entire essay.

  5. What does the reader need to know in order to understand the essay’s points?

The tone of  language and the writer’s intention and presentation of central idea or thesis statement. Specificity, precision, ability to be argued, ability to be demonstrated, forcefulness, and confidence.

6. What kind of hook is necessary to engage the readers and their interest?

In the essay the fact and definition plays a key to interest their reader because it surprises the reader.Therefore writers always need to find something unique and interesting to engage the readers and their interest.

7. What level of language is required? Words that are too subject-specific may make the writing difficult to grasp for readers unfamiliar with the topic.

The writer should always use academic clear and appropriate language that  readers can understand easily .


8. What is an appropriate tone for the topic? A humorous tone that is suitable for an autobiographical, narrative essay may not work for a more serious, persuasive essay.

It depends on the type of topics of the essay. A writer chooses a tone to convey the reader for a thesis statement. For instance, if the essay topic is celebratory, a festive,joyous and informal tone is more suitable.


Write a draft of your opening paragraph based on Chapter 3.2 Opening Paragraphs from English Composition: Connect, Collaborate, Communicate

Essay is an art of exploring ideas and concepts to established reader interest. The main purpose of essay writing is to teach a student to think critically and analyze. The purpose of writing an essay is to deliver information to the students, peers, and professor. Therefore, in the essay introductions should begin with an engaging lead or opener to evoke reader’s interest. The information that can be new, changed  or updated. The main point of the essay is thesis statement which summarize the whole essay in one word.A thesis statement is a promise to the reader about what the essay will be about and it offers a concise summary of the main point or claim of the essay. Thesis  statement allows students  to vow their view and sum up what the entire essay will be about. It help to  predict the content of the essay and suggests how the writer will organize the information. Writer goal is to inform the new information with the general facts or ideas about the topic. It is a great exercise of the brain and develop the ability to analysis. 

Ways of Seeing Episode 2



  1. One of the main premises in this episode is Berger’s distinction between nakedness and the nude female form as it is traditionally represented in Western art. What are the differences between these things and why are these differences significant? Do they apply to images you have encountered in your experience?

According to Berger’s distinction  nakedness and the nude female form as it traditionally represented in western art because women were judged to see how they were looked. Berger discusses the concept of the female nakedness is to be one’s self and to be nude is to be seen naked by others and yet not recognized for one’s self. Berger’s distinction is used to help make the argument that in order for a naked body to become a nude. The nude in European oil painting is usually presented as an ideal subject. It is said to be an expression of the European humanist spirit. I don’t think that they apply to images because such nakedness and the nude images are lined up by their painters for the pleasure of the male.

2.  According to Berger, how have Western works of art depicted and defined different roles for men and women? According to Berger, what is the significance of this? Do these depictions influence the ways we think of the differences between men’s and women’s roles in society today?

          The western work depicted and defined roles for men and women  as a superior and inferior in their presence. Women are treated as abstractions.In European oil painting where women were categorized as a subject to be a nude. Berger further illustrates European paintings of female nudes between the painter’s , owner’s and viewer’s individualism. He added men’s don’t have the same image of themselves or constant reflection or even men’s are not central in the European oil art. Berger believes that this inequality between men and women exists heavily in our society.  For instance, the beauty of women from the early age was portrayed through nude paintings emphasizing a woman’s body. Similarly, current advertisements still emphasize a woman’s beauty through their physical attributes. Men’s are depicted to be hard workers and providers for the family. Men’s are associated with strength  which automatically makes them superior. For example, older paintings or artwork depicts men in horses or in war. They are depicted with immense strength and are associated with the “provider” role for their family. Current advertisements might not emphasize directly their strength however, they are still shown to be the “provider” of the family. Advertisements usually depict women in the kitchen or laundry while men are frequently seen in car, construction, hardware goods advertisements. 

3. How does Berger describe the significance of the mirror in paintings depicting women? What does this object say about the ways beauty is defined in these paintings? What does Berger say about the depiction of the female gaze in the paintings he discusses? What kinds of more contemporary examples does he relate this to, and what significance does  he draw from these connections between older European art and depictions of women today?

 The mirror painting depicts women to look at herself  and it reminds them how they look and how they should look.According to Berger the significance of the mirror in painting is vanity to the women. In the oil European painting Suzanna seems to look at herself in the mirror, picturing herself as men see her. She sees herself first and foremost as a sight which means as a sight for men. Thus the mirror is a symbol of vanity of women yet the male hypocrisy in this blatant. Berger states the culture of privileged Europeans reinforced female nude, which depicted women as passive receptacles for the spectator’s sexual gaze. These did exist for the viewer’s projection of a fantasy. According to the Berger the paintings in film cannot be identified because they are so immensely exaggerated. Many painting shows are idealized and very unreal. 


Blog Post 2



See the source image

The image is powerful  that everybody has different perceptions on dress color. The photograph is popular for its color perception. When viewers looked at the dress they perceived the dress pictured was colored black and royal blue ,or white and gold. The picture reveals the reality of human color perception. Berger “ Way of seeing” can be related in this picture because it tells a lot. The dress is one but it represents different colors to different people. The act of seeing something is not as objective as we might at first think. When we  see the art or pictures is conditioned by habit and convention because we tend to believe a large part of seeing depends upon habit and convention.we are conditioned to see the world in a different perspective. Our perspective centers everything on the eye of the beholders. Our habits and conventions go beyond just what the eye sees at the moment. The photograph emphasizes that even though people who appear identical can have different but equally correct points of view on the same topic.

To sum up, in this picture the perception about the color is different for different people. I have somehow seen both colors at different times. When looking at the photo of the dress , our brain is trying to figure out if it’s a blue and black dress in yellow light  or a white and gold dress with a blue shadow over it. 

Ways of seeing

  1. One of the first points John Berger makes is that the act of seeing something is not as objective as we might at first think. Instead, he argues that what we see is conditioned by habits and conventions. What does Berger mean when he says that the process of seeing is not “natural,” that it is shaped by habits and conventions? What kinds of habits and conventions shape the ways we see and how do they do this? Why is this significant when we think about what artworks like paintings mean for viewers?        

John Berger states “ the act of seeing something is not as objective as we might at first think”. He explains that what we see is conditioned by habits and conventions because we are conditioned to see the world in a different perspective through photography and modern technology. We tend to believe a large part of seeing depends upon habit and conventions. All the paintings of the tradition used the convention of perspective which is unique because our perspective centers everything on the eyes of the beholders. Our habits and conventions go beyond just what the eye sees at the moment. He further explained how cameras changed everything and the uses of it changes the concept of art. The uses of cameras help to see a mile away and how the use of cameras leads towards the creation of a fresh perception of the art. He added that with the invention of the camera we can view art everywhere outside of its intended environment as a part of building, museum, church and so on .However, in a modern perspective we are conditioned to see but as we lose its original purpose .

2.  According to Berger, how has the camera changed our senses of perception? How has this device changed our engagement with works of art? Conversely, Berger describes the experience of being in the presence of an authentic artwork–at a museum, for instance–in terms of “stillness” and “silence.” What does he mean by this? According to Berger, why is seeing an artwork in a museum different from seeing it on a screen or in a book?

According to Berger, cameras have completely changed our sense of perception because it helps to see such icons in the home. The images come to you through an image of painting which travels. He explained  how the images he standing  in the studio travel and  and appears on screen the meaning of a painting no longer reside in its unique painted surface which it is only possible to see in one place at one time its meaning or a large part of its has become transmittable. Further he illustrates camera work of art transmittable has multiplied its possible meaning and destroyed its unique original meaning. Berger experience of being in the presence of an authentic art–at a museum, for instance–in term of “stillness” and “silence” is pureness because these things are important things in paintings. Painting as a whole is simultaneous. It  is silent and still because their meaning in no longer attached to them but has become transmittable paintings lend themselves to easy manipulation.Painting themselves in the images is silent still. On the television  or in a screen are never still and in a sense the pages of a book are never still but it demonstrates the silence and the stillness of a painting can be very striking. 

3.  What does Berger mean when he describes reproductions of paintings becoming a “form of information?” Paraphrase what he means by his idea of “talking with reproductions.” What is the significance of this?

According to the Berger when paintings have reproduced they become a form of information which is being continually transmitted  and so there they have to hold their own against all the other information which is jostling around them to appear on the same page or the same screen. Reproduction makes the meaning of work of art ambiguous. He states reproduction of work of art can be used by anybody for their own purpose and  image can be used like words. It is significant because this is not as negative as it necessarily sounds. Reproduction makes it easier to connect our experience of art directly with other experiences.