Author Archives: ambika lama

discussion #7

Episode 5

  1. At the beginning of this episode, Krukowski asserts, “the marginal-the rejected-the repressed-is whatever the powerful have decided is of no use at the moment.” What does he mean by this statement? He goes on to ask,But might it [the marginal-the rejected-the repressed] not be a key to alternate approaches-to art, to society-to power itself?(“Marginalized”is an adjective that describes a person, group, or concept that is treated as insignificant or peripheral.)What is he trying to get at with this question? How does music indicate the differences between the powerful and the marginalized?

-Krukowski mentions that walking to a record store  and possibility of finding new genre  which were hits in yesterdays ,is more than the in digital platforms like Spotify where recommendation algorithms is used.Therefore today  those musics which aren’t listened are marginalized by those digital medias. Krukowski believes Those  hard copies  we find in record stores can be great use  and can be surprising.

2.How are the music listening experiences enabled by Forced Exposure different from those that Paul Lamere is working on with platforms like Spotify?
-Digital corporations like Spotify, use recommendation algorithm  where they track your location, mood and they play  music accordingly . you will get to listen what spotify recommends you. But  the music  experience you get through Forced Exposure is different. You could be surprised by music. There is always a Possibility of finding what you don’t want  to listen.Moreover there is always somebody  physically available with great information who can help you  get more  about what you didn’t expect.

3.What distinctions does Krukowski draw between being “surprised”by music and “discovering”music? What are the differences between these experiences and according to Krukowski, why are they important?
-“Discovering” music means finding music in a course of search or finding music that we already know what we we are looking for.Today with recommendation algorithms and playlists, digital corporations have created a media universe that  adapt,predictably  us.It is important in a way  that it saves a lot of time and But” surprise “by music means finding for what you don’t know what you are looking at. It could be pleasure of brick-and mortar browsing.

Episode 6

  1. According to Krukowski, what is noise? What is signal? Why are these distinctions important?

According to Krukowski Signal is a sound  that we are trying to pay attention to. Signal can shift the target constantly. Whereas Noise is the signal that we are not interested in.For an instance, we see people running in subways to catch the train as the train approach.The sound of the approaching train becomes the signal  But the same sound could be noise to other who is in phone call or may be chatting  nearby.

2.What central idea about noise does this episode convey? Why is it significant?

Our world is enrich with noise.We can never completely ignore the noise.But everything is noise until find a signal that we are trying to pay attention.

3.How does this episode relate to other episodes?

Each episodes shares  about the switch of analog to digital impact to of ways of hearing.It has impacted our time, space ,love, money  basically what’s important in our life.

Blog post #5

Never had I ever imagined a city that never sleeps could go quite like in past few months. When New York shut down in response to pandemic, New York’s busy sidewalks, subway rides, constant construction, cab honking, noise of children in parks, all these soundscapes   are what we New Yorkers achingly missed. I had never realized that it has become a part of our life and I think I don’t like missing that part. I felt like I was living in a countryside. That instant change in soundscape was not joyful at all. “Missing sound of New York “album released by The New York Public Library is helpful in coping with this distress. New York has its own sound that everybody misses even those who are here for the short trip. All thanks to the pandemic, now we have realized those sound only belongs to New York. It could definitely make some people sad about the noise like before, but I think most people are looking forward for resuming completely all those soundscapes.

Discussion question #6

Episode 3

  1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

– The microphones used by cell phones are sensitive while technologically superior to those they replaced, deliberately filter out background noise, and often vocal tone. This makes conversation via cell phone more difficult to interpret than on the analog land lines .There is no proximate effect in cell phone. Whereas in microphone has those proximate effect .Microphone can give the feeling of closeness to the listener just by leaning into the microphone,
 even moving an inch or two can create a very noticeable change in volume.

Q2.What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?

– Professor Gary believes that human are musical being. He asserts that even before human had language  we had musical qualities that communicate what we need to survive as spices, social organization and even love. Now  the digital transmission does encoding our language, send it over the internet to make it perceivable at the other end of the   distance, But the nonverbal quality of our voice tends to be lost in coding.


  1. What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

We can listen the voices across the world through digital transmission. Even though it is possible to share our voice at great distances ,sometimes they fail as we are communicating. But there is always a place for improvement.

Episode 4

  1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion of this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay?

-Music is a form of art. Artist put everything to create their art.Their hardworking and the hardship they get while creating an art ,is priceless. Valuable things should be paid . In my opinion music should not be free. Sharing a music file is just like a stealing from the artist which will hurt the very performers we love.Music for free also devalues the work of the artist . Basically it is like saying that the great music they produce is worth nothing or of no value at all.

Q5.How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

-Playing or  listening music is particularly important for Human Social Development. Music is a relaxing and can relieve feeling or stress and anxiety. Improved mental health in individual increases capacity for social integration. They feel much more involved in community when the feel Positive, relaxed and confident. Music is nonverbal and does not differentiate the, religion and culture. Music is able to bring diverse group of people together in a community. Music has  its own language of rhythms and melody to enable to communicate each other nonverbally. It promotes familiarity of different community and forms a healthy relationship and sense of belonging for those different cultures.As a result  music can develop more harmonious society.

  1. Does charging money for music impede the formation of communities around this music or does it help support the circulation of music?

Charging  money for the music helps support the circulation of music and help generate new creativity. Music for free is just like insulting the artists we love, and that is not good for the  music industry in future. Paying for what we are  getting is a way to express support  that every creation is valuable and worthy .


Blog post #4

It makes me nostalgic for the iPod i had when i was still in school. My first iPod was the smallest, music player with no internet connectivity. Back in early 2000, options for entertainment were limited. Watching pretty much anything that broadcasted in television was fun until i had iPod. It delivered the utter joy that I experience the first time i used with the thin black headphones. I would practice dance with the headphone on for the school activities. It gave the opportunity to rewind and listen and practice again and again.IT gave me a personal soundscape which I think provide me a power to concentrate. I would feel every beats of the music and was easy to remember the dance choreography. It was easily portable as well as considered stylish back then. Some of the soundtracks that I still listen, can transport me back in time. I could feel that “real “time. I could feel what I was thinking or relate things at that particular moment that wonderful moment that I had experienced.


ways of hearing eposide#1 &2

Ways of Hearing, Episode 1 & 2

Episode 1

  1. What is Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in the “real” world versus are experiences with “digital” time? Why are these differences significant?
    -THe” real” time means lived time, the time we experience .In real time ,neither we can fast forward things nor we can make it slow.Real time is flexible, can unified without thinking about the real time. Whereas digital time is not a lived time.It is a machine time .It is locked to a clock and that time could make everything  more regular than lived time.Digital time is designed from machine .We can get all kind of conveniences that are possible in making life easier but it may be the reason to lose the ability to share individual time with one another.
  2. What does Krukowski mean when he says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate space?
    -We use our  hearing to locate sound around us and to map where  we are in-relation to source of  the sound.You are able to detect the the  way or even know the type of noise  with your eye still in screen.

Episode 2

  1. In the interview at the beginning of the episode, Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” What does he mean by this? What does Moss say about the distinction between public and private space, and why is it important?
    -Public space is a publicly-owned place for speaking out and being heard. For example, parks, sidewalks, libraries, schools, governmental buildings, recreation facilities .A successful public space generally offer  qualities like easy  accessible, it should be comfortable and have a good image, people should be able to engage in an array of activities, and, it should be sociable.Now the Astor place lacks those qualities.Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place  have now Private security guards and are not allowed  skateboarding etc.And the public does not seems to notice those things since they are in their own private bubble within a public place.
  2. Emily Thompson’s idea of the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control sound in interior spaces” because of constant  never ending development and recreating in the exterior environment  that creates noise.The drive  to control noise lead to  the development of concert halls. According  to Krukowski  the idea of how much of the sound we want  to hear, with out reverberation in an auditorium  is unremarkable  which is related to earbud ,and headphone as he said they create an auditorium without the walls.

3.In your own opinion, what are the key ideas from this episode about the relationship between sound and space? What strikes you as interesting about the ways that sound influences our experience of space

We use our  hearing to locate sound around us and to map where  we are in-relation to source of  the sound. What we hear involves awareness of the surrounding sounds.

Discussion #4

  1. Berger describes publicity as a strategy to lure  the consumer by being all about “the future buyer”.Publicity can’t rely on present.Publicity is an manufacturing process.Publicity cause people to spend more through the transformation of which cause envy.Publicity is a tool to propose products by causing envy of others glamour. It forces people to spend more to achieve those glamour.

Q2. Berger argues that oil painting celebrates  the principle “you are what you have.” Oil paintings’ owners already have money that they have made by providing goods or services to consumers. The spectator-owner of oil paintings and the spectator-buyer of advertisements are different audiences. Oil paintings are designed to show a standard of living their wealthy owners already enjoy. Advertisements are designed to show a potential buyer what their life lacks and to offer them a better life.Berger mentions  publicity celebrates consumerism.He views advertisements as the last form of post-Renaissance Europe’s visual art. Since advertisements must “sell the past to the future, they have to use the language of the past. Publicity relies on “the fear that having nothing  will be nothing.” Publicity can’t rely on the present. It must use the future to suggest that the spectator-buyer will have a better life with the product. These advertisements works well because “the power to spend money is the power to live.” Those without money become “faceless” or invisible to advertisers, to themselves, and  those with money are “lovable.”Often Production of images for publicity reveals  anxieties  about money and desirability.

Q3.The   image which are publicized of beauty  cream where the image have “perfect skin” and are stereotyped as what all other women should ideally look like.Consumer begins to envy the promise of having beautiful flawless skin.Now publicity influence women to be hopeful and experience the glamour that they promise.Now days Social media has popularized the concern as “fear of missing out” if you are not good looking.

blog #3

  • Is the the purpose of the essay to educate, announce, entertain, or persuade?
    -The purpose of the essay is to educate.
  • Who might be interested in the topic of the essay?
    -Students,Professor might be interested.
  • Who would be impacted by the essay or the information within it?
    -students, professor and reader might be interested.
  • What does the reader know about this topic?
    -The topic is well circulated in media.
  • What does the reader need to know in order to understand the essay’s points?
    -The reader might have to understand some sort of knowledge about  arts.The essay is not about BLM movement.
  • What kind of hook is necessary to engage the readers and their interest?
    -Presenting unusual sentences or hiding some piece of information will increase curiosity to readers.
  • What level of language is required? Words that are too subject-specific may make the writing difficult to grasp for readers unfamiliar with the topic.
    -An appropriate  language  with clear meaning is  easier to understand.
  • What is an appropriate tone for the topic? A humorous tone that is suitable for an autobiographical, narrative essay may not work for a more serious, persuasive essay.
    – Expository in  some part of the essay .


  1. Write a draft of your opening paragraph based on Chpter 3.2 Opening Paragraphs from English Composition: Connect, Collaborate,
    Silence Speaks Volumes. It sends a powerful message   that we don’t agree or are not going to agree along with someone’s saying or action. The photograph of a young African American women   standing still and silent in the face of two state troopers in riot gear in a Black live matters movement, shows her strong disagreement yet brave, courageous and lionhearted. Brave are those who prioritize their dreams over their fears. Being fearless is a myth. This one speaks more to the movement and what the demonstrators are trying to accomplish. Black live matters movement is much more than protestor and officer.


discussion question #3

    Q 1. Being naked is simply being  without clothes .To be naked is to be oneself whereas  nakedness is created in the mind of eye of beholder.BUt Nude is form of an art.Nude means to be seen naked by other and yet not recognize for one self.Nude has to been seen by an object in order to be  nude.In European  art  ,nakedness is seight  for those who addresses and  is not taken as granted.The European nude art implies an awareness of being seen by the spectetor. Nude art are not naked as they are, they are naked as you see them. Nakedness reveals itself whereas Nudity is placed on display.  Not necessarily the image but when in hospital for any body checkup ,you don’t feel nude.

Q2.Men are portrayed as strong ,fit ,dominant characters whereas women appear more polished because they ought to appeal to men. A European oil painting of a nude does not includes a spectator. But paintings of nudes assume the spectator to be a clothed man, the painting created for his enjoyment. Berger illustrates this point through the painting Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time . The painter arranges the woman’s body so the male spectator can look at her. The composition is designed to appeal to his sexuality, not her own.As Berger European oil painters were usually men and their subjects were usually women. Women were just made to be looked at, or “surveyed” .Berger shows a picture of multiple female nudes,[The Oreads (wood nymphs)] by French painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau , as the height of “this male flattery” referring men could look at the women and be reassured of their masculinity.Art and life affect one another.The presentation of women in art might affect the way  women behave and are treated in society. 

Q3.A mirror in a painting  was to allow woman as treating herself a sight thus  having her own spectator as herself. But  the painting with mirror  and beauty tools are accused  to exhibit women sexulaity  and vanity . Mirror symbolized as a vanity of women therefore depicted  women the pleasure.Woman dependent on the gaze of others for her identity’s as she looks out of the picture.In modern art the category of the nude has become less important.

Blog #2


This comic image offers a powerful message about perspective and point of view. As we are working on Berger’s ways of seeing, I think this image justifies it in a significant way. In this image the two identical looking cartoons expresses different interpretations of a number based on where they view from. The image emphasizes that even though people who appear identical can have different but equally correct points of view on the same topic. But then one should expect the same from people with different perception. An individual’s behavior, opinion, mindset, assumption, has direct connection with culture, religion, economic or his life experience. Even though both cartoons possess different perception, both are right. Here, how you see things and where you’re coming from really matters. And the same goes for the other person.

It also emphasizes on putting yourself in the shoes of other people. It is important because it can help one to better understand and develop empathy which promotes generosity .Looking from others point of view may shed some light on what actually happened when both party are not wrong. It’s undeniable to say adopting character could help to see the other’s point of view. Though in real life, adaptation is much more complicated but the simplicity of this comic image highlights a hopeful message that different interpretation is possible.


discussion #2

  1.  One of the first points John Berger makes is that the act of seeing something is not as objective as we might at first think. Instead, he argues that what we see is conditioned by habits and conventions. What does Berger mean when he says that the process of seeing is not “natural,” that it is shaped by habits and conventions? What kinds of habits and conventions shape the ways we see and how do they do this?

To argue what we see is not objective at first, Berger has used several painting. He has demonstrated well known painting by Goya. Often we see things in context of what the narrator say. What we know or believe affects the way we see things. Also even we start with seeing and recognition , our past experience and knowledge changes the way we see things. He also mentions that the meaning of a painting shown on films can be changed even more radically. He has presented one painting by Brueghel ”The Road to Calvary” in which we see mourners of Christ. All we can see that is  grief, torture and despair. But as the camera zoomed in for more details, it looks more like a devotional  pictures. That means external factors like environment, the presentation, the technology  belief and religion interprets what we see is different from what we understand.

  1. How does Berger describe the term “perspective”? How does the concept of artistic perspective make “the eye the center of the visible world” and why is this significant when we think about what artworks like paintings mean for viewers?

Berger describes the term “perspective” as where and when we see something will affect what we see. The perspective of children and adults looking at painting are different. Berger mentions how people perspective is changing because of camera. The camera can reproduce images in any size, anywhere for different purposes. The painting on our wall or in religious place is influenced by the context of our life and the other object placed around. Stillness and silence of the painting help us to feel the uniqueness without being diverted by foreign factors.

  1. According to Berger, how has the camera changed our sense of perception? How has this device brought paintings and other images into the context of our lives? How does this differ from attitudes toward art that existed before the camera was invented?

As Berger said Botticelli’s Venus and Mars used to be unique. It was possible to see only in its original hanging place. As he said paintings which are still can only be in one place at one time The original is silent .The painters emotion and creation can be seen establishing relationship between painting and viewer .But camera can reproduce it in any size and anywhere for different purposes. Camera has changed the way how we see the things and what we see. It has changed how we see the old paintings that are unique .The same paintings can be seen in different places for different purposes at same time .Now the reproduced painting is seen in context of observers eye. It is affected by the environment and people around there. The reproduced painting lacks its uniqueness.