Author Archives: Mahmoud Bakr

Discussion #7


  1.  Krukowski suggests at the beginning of the episode when he states  “the marginal-the rejected-the repressed-is whatever the powerful have decided is of no use at the moment”  suggests that those in power, or rather the majority, are who decide what is represented in digital media.
  2. These are different because they can be used for positive influences rather than have a negative impact on the public.
  3. The difference is that when you are surprised by new music, it is something you have stumbled upon, whereas discovering new music is when you search for new music within a genre or a certain theme.

Episode 6

  1.  According to Krukowski, noise is dependent on the person, Is any sound that does not relay information but is instead a distraction. Signals on the other hand transmit information to the listener.
  2. The central idea of noise is that is subjective to the listener, and that noise to one person may not be noise to another.
  3. This episode relates to other episodes since noise and signals are a new change that is moderately new in technology, and is prevalent now in all forms of media that contain sound.

Discussion Post #6

  1. According to Krukowski, what are the main differences between a microphone and a cellphone and why is this difference important?

The main difference between a microphone and a cellphone is with what it relays. A microphone relays back all sound that it receives, through all proximity. A cellphone, however, has a very small range and its main purpose is to allow two parties to talk to one another. This means a microphone has more vocal capabilities when it comes to proximity and emotion.

2. What do Krukowski and Gary Tomlinson, the professor he interviews, assert about the “musical” qualities of the voice and how are these changed by digital transmission?


Our voices are compressed when they are transmitted digitally, this limits the feel of our voice and the emotion that’s carried with it. When the range of our voices and proximity are compressed, the musical qualities of it are lost, and our voices lose the genuine feel of it.


3.  What is the significance of Krukowski’s comments on the voice to ideas about community and interpersonal connection?

The digital transmission has connected the entire world together, where all you need is a device and a connection to speak to anyone, however, over the years, the quality has declined when it comes to the voice that’s transmitted.

Episode 4

  1. Krukowski begins by discussing the issue of music file sharing. What is your opinion on this issue? Should music be freely available or should one have to pay?

I think music should not have to be paid for, the fame and price of performing live should be enough for a musician. Music are the end of the day is just luxury not a necessity, therefore should have the price based by the consumer not the seller.

2.  How does this episode represent the relationships between music, community, and culture?

Music develops culture, which is important to a community’s identity and soul. Music is an expression of people and connects people based on common ideas and struggles.

Blog Post 5

Back then we only had a few types of songs about love, drama, and sadness. in that time people really loved these songs and didn’t want to change something or even create another new type to listen and attract the fans. finally, in 1980 a new genre started called Rap, it was released in the Bronx. Most of these people didn’t like to hear a new type. Whoever wanted to show himself to the people and went to sing in bars, concerts, and even parties. the police used to arrest them and the owner of the Bar used to kick them out it’s because they didn’t accept to hear a new type song. nowadays, everyone, color, and even edge listens to the Rap and prefers it to others.

Blog Post 4

I’ve been a big fan of rap from when I was a little kid, which was hard growing up in Egypt since no one really made any rap songs in the country then. My brother and I would go to the internet cafe with blank CDs, and illegally download whatever song had a good title by an artist we loved.  In “Time in the ways of hearing” by Damon Krukowshi, it mentioned how digital music can be reused and repurposed. That is exactly how the rise of rap started in Egypt. Many unknown rappers who had no followings at all would simply take the beat of an American rap song, and either translate it or rap a new song over the beat. By repurposing the song, rap became more acceptable in Egypt, and today it is the number one genre in the country, while also the top genre in the entire Middle East.

Discussion #5

1. What is Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in the “real” world versus are experiences with “digital” time? Why are these differences significant?

Krukowski’s main point about how we experience time in the “real” world versus our experiences with “digital” time is that digital time is fabricated by humans and controlled. Digital time is nothing more than an agreed-upon time in which every person follows.  “Real” time, however, is relative to every person based on the moment they are in, and how fast time is for them.

2. What does Krukowski mean when he says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate space?

When Krukowski says that listening has a lot to do with how we navigate space, he refers to our sense of sound as a way of discovering our location. Like bats. we could use sound to track our movement, and how far we are from a certain sound, and which direction it is heading in.


3. In the interview at the beginning of the episode, Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” What does he mean by this? What does Moss say about the distinction between public and private space, and why is it important?

In the interview at the beginning of the episode, Jeremiah Moss argues that developers in Astor Place are “privatizing public space in a very stealth way.” He refers to the safe spaces people have created themselves by using their phones and listening to music as they’re walking through public space. However, this has transformed these places from the public to private, with rules set by private companies.

4. What is the significance of Emily Thompson’s idea that the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control interior spaces”? How is this desire, according to Krukowski, related to earbuds and headphones?

The significance of Emily Thompson’s idea that the development of concert halls arose from desires to “control interior spaces” refers to the plethora of noise pollution outside, from car engines, trains, construction, etc. This has led to the likability of earbuds and headphones, which create private spaces for people inside their heads.

5. In your own opinion, what are the key ideas from this episode about the relationship between sound and space? What strikes you as interesting about the ways that sound influences our experience of space.

To me, this was very interesting, because for so long I have taken these two senses for granted when in reality, they are a very important factor in how I navigate around this world. The next time I’m outside, ill be sure to leave the headphones at home.

Discussion Post #4

1. Advertising uses subtle psychological tricks to persuade you into purchasing their product. They target their audience by making their product seem desirable to everyone not just them and marking them as a luxury.

2. Paintings were a medium where artists could celebrate the life around them, and present their possessions. However, advertisements were not a medium where an artist could do the same. Instead, they became visualizations of the need and envy of the viewer.

3. Dreams are a good tactic to use in advertisements since that is essentially what they are selling. Ads sell the idea of the perfect dream life that comes along with the commercial. Therefore every purchase we make is an attempt towards the dream life.

Blog Post #3

  • Is the purpose of the essay to educate, announce, entertain, or persuade?                            The purpose of this essay is to educate on Corona’s effects on our lives.
  • Who might be interested in the topic of the essay?
  • All readers would be interested since the topic is an event we are all currently living through.
  • Who would be impacted by the essay or the informative on within it?
  • This essay would only impact the class since they’re the only readers.
  • What does the reader know about this topic?
  • Every reader will be well informed on the topic beforehand, but perhaps missing information on its consequences.
  • What does the reader need to know in order to understand the essay’s points?
  • The reader might need to know the consequences of isolation.
  • What kind of hook is necessary to engage the readers and their interest?
  • Presenting the dire consequences of continuing life on this path.
  • What level of language is required? Words that are too subject-specific may make the writing difficult to grasp for readers unfamiliar with the topic.
  • A respectful and educational language.
  • What is an appropriate tone for the topic? A humorous tone that is suitable for an autobiographical, narrative essay may not work for a more serious, persuasive essay.
  • The tone is serious and informative/persuasive.
  1. Write a draft of your opening paragraph based on Chapter 2 Opening Paragraphs

With the sudden occurrence of coronavirus dominating our world; life as we knew it has changed for almost all people. Living in New York City, a city with a large and dense population, Corona has devastated this once lively city. Guidelines on how to live daily life keep getting more intense and a majority of New Yorkers are required to stay home. Within the last few months, Mayor Bill De Blasio has closed all New York Public Schools in order to hinder the spread of the COVID-19 virus, along with millions filing for unemployment. The course of action Coronavirus has forced us to take, will have a negative effect on the New York community, and will significantly damage the mental well being of every New Yorker.

Discussion Question 3

  1.   1. Berger is saying that nakedness is pure. Being naked is just a lack of clothes. While nudity is expressly for the purpose of being seen. Nudity is what you find in art, while nakedness is just the human body without clothes. Being naked seems to derive from shame, whereas to be nude seems to come from a source of pride. Nakedness in art doesn’t hold back, showing all the raw emotion regardless of whether it is good or bad. Nudity in art is to show nature in its purest form.
  2. In art men and women do have their different values. Since art has been male dominant it has usually followed a male perspective. Men are depicted as brave, and noble while women as something to desire or achieve.
  3. Women’s nakedness in art is usually to show the beauty of women in art. Men are depicted as naked many times throughout art history, so male artist drawing women as naked is equal treatment.

Blog Post 2

In the first picture called The Scream, it shows us as a horrible feeling, so the painting back then wasn’t describing an emotion as accurately as a meme whenever we look at it, it is up to our interpretation. However, nowadays we do use a meme picture in a text message to show our emotions. for instance, the meme picture shows us this Phoebe from Friends yelling, so whenever this picture is used, the context of the conversation provides the meaning. Through memes, classical art can be redesigned as modern “art” for the people of today.

Discussion Question #1

“The Power to Look” by the Art Institute of Chicago explains the importance of details in artworks that shape our interpretations and how we perceive art.  This video seeks out to answer how the ways we look at a work shape our experiences and interpretations. Many important factors such as the framing of the image or the scale at which it is captured can affect our interpretations. In Gustave Caillebotte’s “Paris Street; Rainy Day”, Scaling is used to precisely depict the difference in social classes during modern reformed France in the 1800s. Similarly, in Cindy Sherman’s “Untitled #92′, director camera shots are utilized to allow the viewer to perceive the subject through an angle the artist deliberately chose. By using this technique, Sherman can invoke the feeling of helpless of the subject unto the viewer, though it’s a high angled camera shot. Therefore, the techniques artists use directly shape how we interpret and perceive artwork.