Discussion question 7


  1. At the beginning of this episode, Krukowski is explaining how some music is accepted for some people and rejected by others. By “the marginal-the rejected-the repressed-is whatever the powerful have decided is of no use at the moment.” he means that this music which are being rejected could be of a good source of art to society.

 2.  Forced exposure has the responsibility to listen and also write about all new music arrivals. They release a catalog that describes every record in detail. On the contrary, platforms like Spotify, Apple music and Pandora are not listening to each their song, it is impossible Krukowski says. It is done by computers using music algorithms. I think that what digital music platforms are doing is positive to the artist which music is being rejected. Platforms like Spotify give these artist the chance of being known by others.

3. Being surprise according to Krukowski is that people are experiencing a new type of music without the need of searching for an specific kind of music. On the other hand, to discover something is to look for that specifically. However, your can be surprised by a song you discover, for example it could be better or worst that what you expected.


  1.  Signal is whatever is interest to us, everything else is noise. Everything around us is noise as long as it is not important to us, however is we are in a crowded noise an someone says something of our interest then it becomes a signal. I think these differences are important because our brain focuses on what we actually want to hear and is less probable to be distracted by the surrounding noise.
  2. I think that the central idea is that in every noise there is a signal for everyone depending on the listener interest.
  3. It is related to all other episodes because it gives a general explanation and definition of “ways of hearing” in general.